The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Cannatella, D. C. 1985. A phylogeny of primitive frogs (archaeobatrachians). Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Duellman, W. E. 1975. On the classification of frogs. Occ. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas (42):1-15.
  • Duellman, W. E., and L. Trueb. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.
  • Dunlap, D. G. 1960. The comparative myology of the pelvic appendage in the Salientia. J. Morph. 106:1-76.
  • Ford, L. S. 1989a. Phylogenetic assessment of the anuran pectoral girdle. Ann. Soc. Roy. Zool. Belg. 119 (Suppl. 1):101-102.
  • Ford, L. S. 1989b. The phylogenetic position of poison-dart frogs (Dendrobatidae): reassessment of the neobatrachian phylogeny with commentary on complex character systems. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.
  • Ford, L. S., and D. C. Cannatella. 1993. The major clades of frogs. Herp. Monogr. 7:94-117.
  • Hay, J. M., I. Ruvinsky, S. B. Hedges, and L. R. Maxson. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships of amphibian families inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12(5):928-937.
  • Hillis, D. M., and S. K. Davis. 1987. Evolution of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene in anurans: regions of variability and their phylogenetic implications. Mol. Biol. Evol. 4:117-125.
  • Laurent, R. F. 1986. Sous classe des lissamphibiens. Systématique. Pp. 594-797 In P.-P. Grassé and M. Delsol (Eds.), Traité de Zoologie, Tome 14, 1B. Masson, Paris.
  • Lynch, J. D. 1971. Evolutionary relationships, osteology, and zoogeography of leptodactyloid frogs. Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas (53):531-238.
  • Lynch, J. D. 1973. The transition from archaic to advanced frogs. Pp. In J. L. Vial (Ed.), Evolutionary Biology of the Anurans: Contemporary Research on Major Problems. University of Missouri Press, Columbia.
  • Peters, J. A. 1964. Dictionary of Herpetology. Hafner Publishing Co., New York.
  • Ruvinsky, I. and L. R. Maxson. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships among Bufonoid frogs (Anura: Neobatrachia) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5:533-547.


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