Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The Siamese fireback is thought to be omnivorous, feeding on an array of fallen fruits and berries, as well as insects, worms and small land-crabs (4). Little information is available on the breeding behaviour of this shy bird in the wild, other than that eggs have been collected between mid-April and late June, and that one nest was situated on the ground in a hollow at the base of a tree. Clutches seem to contain between four and eight eggs, and are incubated for 24 to 25 days in captivity (4). Males attain adult plumage in their first year but do not typically breed until their third (3). Like other Lophura pheasants, males of this species perform courtship displays in which they whistle and whirr their wings (2).
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Description

The striking male Siamese fireback is most notable for its unusually long crest of purple-black feathers, which reaches up to 9 cm in length and becomes erect when the bird is excited (2) (3). The breast, neck and upper back are mostly grey with very fine vermiculations, and the belly and head are black with the head decorated with large scarlet-red facial wattles (2) (3). The name 'fireback' refers to the yellow plumage in the middle of the back, a feature shared with other firebacks (3). However, this species can be distinguished by its characteristic pattern of metallic blue with coppery-crimson fringes on the lower back, together with its red legs and long, curved tail, which is black with a metallic blue-green sheen (3) (4). The female is also quite distinct from other Lophura hens, most noticeably in having black upper wing and central tail feathers, boldly barred with buffy-white (4). The plumage is otherwise mostly bright chestnut-red and the head is greyish-brown with smaller red facial wattles than the male and no visible crest (2) (3).
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Distribution

Range Description

Lophura diardi is found in Thailand (uncommon to locally common resident, principally in the north-east and south-east, c.5,000 individuals estimated), Laos (widespread and locally abundant, but heavily snared), Cambodia (locally common and widespread) and Vietnam (locally common and widespread in central and southern regions). Its total population size has not been recently estimated, although the population in Cambodia may be conservatively estimated at c.2,000 individuals (F. Goes in litt. 2011). The species is suspected to be undergoing a slow to moderate decline owing to continued habitat loss and hunting pressure.
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Range

Lowlands of e Myanmar, Thailand and Indochina.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Range

Found in Southeast Asia, from east Myanmar, through north, central and east Thailand, central and south Laos, north and central Cambodia to central Vietnam (4).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It occurs in evergreen, semi-evergreen and bamboo forest, secondary growth and scrub, often near roads and tracks through the forest, chiefly in the plains and foothills to 500 m, but occasionally up to 800 m, and perhaps 1,150 m. It seems able to tolerate considerable degradation of its forest habitat. The species occurs in small groups which are presumed to be family parties.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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A lowland resident of evergreen, semi-evergreen and bamboo forest, second-growth and scrub, often seen near open patches such as roads and tracks through the forest. Chiefly found below 500 m above sea level, but occasionally up to 800 m, and perhaps even 1,150 m (4) (5). The Siamese fireback appears to tolerate some degradation of its forest habitat, such as moderate logging and cultivated fields in small clearings (5) (6).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Round, P., Eames, J.C., Pilgrim, J., Mahood, S., McGowan, P., Praditsup, N., Samnang, C. & Goes, F.

Justification
This species is listed as Least Concern as it is more resilient to the threats of habitat alteration and hunting pressure than once thought, thus the rate of population decline is not suspected to be as rapid as was indicated. As habitat loss and hunting are ongoing threats, the population is suspected to be undergoing a slow to moderate decline; however, this is not thought to approach the threshold for Vulnerable. The species is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the other criteria.


History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Near Threatened (NT)
  • Near Threatened (NT)
  • Near Threatened (NT)
  • Near Threatened (NT)
  • Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
  • Vulnerable (VU)
  • Vulnerable (VU)
  • Threatened (T)