Martes foina occurs throughout much of Europe and central Asia. They are found as far north as Denmark, west to Spain, south into Italy, including the islands of Crete, Rhodes, and Corfu, and east to Mongolia and the Himalayas.
A population of beech martens is now established in Wisconsin, United States, as a result of the pet trade.
Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Introduced ); palearctic (Native )
Beech martens range in coloration from dark brown to pale grayish brown. A white or buffy streak can be seen just below the chin running down the neck to the chest. In some southern and eastern regions this white streak is absent. Young have grey dorsal fur. Martes foina have little to no fur on the soles of the feet. The limbs are long, a bushy tail is present, and the pelt is coarser than their close relative Martes martes, pine martens. The dental formula for martens is 3/3 (incisors), 1/1 (canine), 4/4 (premolars), and 1/2 (molars) producing a total of 38 teeth. Males and females are monomorphic. Total length varies between 40 and 50 cm from head to end of body. Beech martens have longer tails than pine martens, from 22 to 30 cm in length. Total weight ranges between 1.1 and 2.3 kg. The size of Martes foina has been compared to that of a domestic cat, but with a more slender body.
Range mass: 1.1 to 2.3 kg.
Range length: 40 to 54 cm.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry
Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike
Beech martens prefer open deciduous forest and rock outcroppings in mountainous habitats. They can be found at elevations up to 4,000 m during summer months. They prefer open landscapes, being less dependent on forested habitats than other Martes species. Martes foina is frequently found living near human habitation, where they may den in buildings. Natural den sites include abandoned burrows, hollow trees, and rocky crevices.
Range elevation: 4000 (high) m.
Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: scrub forest ; mountains
Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban ; agricultural
Habitat and Ecology
Martes foina is an opportunistic, omnivorous species, although animal prey are preferred. Diet varies with season and prey availability. They eat available small mammals and birds, especially nestlings and eggs. Bird eggs are eaten by making a small incision that allows the yolk to be sucked out, leaving a hollow shell. Beech martens will eat a wide variety of vertebrates and invertebrates, though, including frogs and large arthropods. During summer months seasonal berries, such as blackberries, raspberries, and elder berries are important, as well as other fruits. In some regions, vegetable matter is a major part of the summer diet. When food is scarce they will feed on carrion. Beech martens have also been known to raid chicken coops and rabbit hutches and cache excess food until it is needed, as do other mustelids.
Animal Foods: birds; mammals; amphibians; eggs; carrion ; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods
Plant Foods: fruit
Foraging Behavior: stores or caches food
Primary Diet: omnivore
Beech martens help to control the pest population of rats and mice in central Europe. They also provide nourishment for foxes, owls, and wildcats. Martes foina have been identified as a species that may contribute to seed dispersal in forested regions. Martes foina are considered to be important dispersal vectors for fleshy-fruited plants inhabiting the forests of Central Europe. The amount of seeds dispersed by stone martens has been determined by counting the seeds per scat, and seed dispersal as related to plant abundance in specific areas. Almost all endozoochorous seeds were from fleshy-fruited species found in M. foina range.
A study conducted on M. foina and helminths found that a majority of adult beech martens were infected by helminths. One cestode (Taenia martis) and three nematode (Molineus patens, Capillaria sp. and Angio strongylus sp.) species were identified.
Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds; biodegradation
Little is known about defensive behaviors in M. foina. It is possible that they display a defense similar to their close relative Martes martes, where individuals place their head between their hind legs and arches their back when threatened. They are cryptically colored and generally secretive, making them difficult to detect. Beech martens are also agile in the trees and take refuge both in trees and burrows to escape threats. Like most mustelids, beech martens are aggressive and may successfully defend themselves against predators larger than themselves. They are mainly preyed on by large birds of prey, such as Eurasian eagle owls and larger predators, such as foxes.
- red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)
- Eurasian eagle-owls (Bubo bubo)
Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic
Life History and Behavior
Stone martens are solitary mammals that communicate primarily by using olfactory cues. Territorial boundaries and reproductive readiness are communicated in this way through scent marking. During the mating season their cries are audible. They are territorial and avoid contact with others of their kind. Martes foina individuals have excellent senses of sight and smell. Both of these senses are useful in darkness.
Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical
Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical
Average longevity of M. foina in its natural habitat is 3 years. The maximum life expectancy in the wild is 10 years. In captivity, this species may live upwards of 18 years.
Status: wild: 10 years.
Status: captivity: 18 years.
Status: wild: 3 years.
Status: captivity: 18.1 years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Beech martens are typically solitary animals, except during the mating season. Male territories overlap those of females, providing access to several potential mates. Males have a home range of about 12 to 211 ha. The range is largest in the summer mating season. Beech marten males will attempt to mate with females within their territory. During the month of July male testes reach their maximum size. Copulation begins midsummer (June through August). Cries of mating M. foina can be distinctly heard throughout the mating season and mainly at night. Olfaction plays an important role in locating prospective mates as well. When first approached by a male, females respond aggressively. Males calmly vocalize their intent with subtle cooing. A layer of subcutaneous fat on the dorsal surface of the neck is used as a place where males can grasp females during copulation, which may last up to an hour. After copulation, females groom themselves.
Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)
Copulation of M. foina may occur midsummer, but implantation does not occur until early in the following spring. The blastocyst begins to develop in February. Total pregnancy time is 230 to 275 days, but development time of the embryo from time of implantation (true gestation) is approximately a month. Females give birth to 3 to 4 blind, hairless young. Weaning of the young occurs mid May, immediately before mating season begins. At 15 to 27 months young reach sexual maturity, with some females becoming pregnant in the year following their birth.
Breeding interval: Martes foina breed once yearly.
Breeding season: Mating occurs in midsummer (June to August).
Range number of offspring: 1 to 4.
Average number of offspring: 2-3.
Average gestation period: 230-275 days.
Average weaning age: 2 months.
Average time to independence: 1 years.
Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 15 to 27 months.
Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 15 to 27 months.
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous ; delayed implantation
Average gestation period: 30 days.
Average number of offspring: 3.5.
Females care exclusively for their young, which are nursed and protected in the den for a period of time. Young are born naked, and with their ears and eyes closed. After weaning, which occurs at about two months, young learn hunting techniques from their mother. At the end of the summer they are independent.
Parental Investment: no parental involvement; altricial ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); extended period of juvenile learning
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Martes foina
Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.
Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Martes foina
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
One unidentified form of Martes foina that once occupied the island of Ibiza in the Balearic Islands was hunted to extinction in the 1960’s. Other beech marten populations are not considered threatened.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
In urban areas M. foina can be a pest. They often den in attics, barns, and automobile engine compartments, damaging hoses and wires. Beech martens sometimes raid chicken coops and rabbit hutches.
Negative Impacts: household pest
Beech martens benefit farmers by helping to control rodent populations around farms. Pelts of these animals also have some value, though less than that of their relative Martes martes. Beech martens are traded as pets and live fairly long in captivity.
Positive Impacts: pet trade ; body parts are source of valuable material; controls pest population
The beech marten (Martes foina), also known as the stone marten or white breasted marten, is a species of marten native to much of Europe and Central Asia, though it has established a feral population in North America. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN on account of its wide distribution, its large population, and its presence in a number of protected areas. It is superficially similar to the pine marten, but differs from it by its smaller size and habitat preferences. While the pine marten is a forest specialist, the beech marten is a more generalist and adaptable species, occurring in a number of open and forest habitats.
- 1 Evolution
- 2 Description
- 3 Behaviour
- 4 Range
- 5 Relationships with humans
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Its most likely ancestor is Martes vetus, which also gave rise to the pine marten. The earliest M. vetus fossils were found in deposits dated to the Würm glaciation in Lebanon and Israel. The beech marten likely originated in the Near East or southwestern Asia, and may have arrived in Europe by the Late Pleistocene or the early Holocene. Thus, the beech marten differs from most other European mustelids of the Quaternary, as all other species (save for the European mink) appeared during the Middle Pleistocene. Comparisons between fossil animals and their descendants indicate that the beech marten underwent a decrease in size beginning in the Würm period. Beech martens indigenous to the Aegean Islands represent a relic population with primitive Asiatic affinities.
The skull of the beech marten suggests a higher adaptation than the pine marten toward hypercarnivory, as indicated by its smaller head, shorter snout and its narrower post-orbital constriction and lesser emphasis on cheek teeth. Selective pressures must have acted to increase the beech marten's bite force at the expense of gape. These traits probably acted on male beech martens as a mechanism to avoid both intraspecific competition with females and interspecific competition with the ecologically overlapping pine marten.
|European beech marten|
Martes f. foina
|Erxleben, 1777||A small subspecies, with an average-sized skull. In winter, its back varies from light greyish tawny to completely dark brown. The guard hairs are tawny or chestnut brown, while the underfur is very light, pale-grey. The flanks and withers are slightly lighter than the back, and the belly darker. The legs are dark brown and the throat patch pure white. The patch is variable in size and shape.||European Russia, Western Europe (except the Balkan Peninsula) and the Iberian Peninsula||alba (Bechstein, 1801)|
domestica (Pinel, 1792)
|Balkan beech marten|
Martes f. bosniaca
|Brass, 1911||Balkan Peninsula|
|Cretan beech marten|
Martes f. bunites
|Bate, 1906||A smaller subspecies than foina, with a less defined throat patch, which may be absent in some specimens.||Crete, Skopelos, Naxos, Erimomilos, Karpathos, Samothrake, Seriphos and Kythnos|
|Middle Asian beech marten|
Martes f. intermedia
|Severtzov, 1873||A smaller subspecies than nehringi, with lighter fur. The back is moderately dark greyish-tawny. The flanks are lighter, but of the same tone as the back. The guard hairs are dark-tawny, while the underfur is almost white. The tail is dark brown. The throat patch is very variable, being sometimes completely undefined.||Montane Middle Asia, from Kopet Dag and Bolshoi Balkhas to Tarbagatai and Altai. Outside the former Soviet Union, its range includes northern Iran, Afghanistan, western Pakistan, western Himalayas, Tien Shan, Tibet and northern Mongolia||altaica (Satunin, 1914)|
leucolachnaea (Blanford, 1879)
|Tibetan beech marten|
Martes f. kozlovi
|Ognev, 1931||Eastern Tibet|
|Iberian beech marten|
Martes f. mediterranea
|Barrett-Hamilton, 1898.||A lighter, less drab coloured form than foina.||Iberian Peninsula|
|Rhodes beech marten|
Martes f. milleri
|Caucasian beech marten|
Martes f. nehringi
|Satunin, 1906||A large subspecies with a massive skull. The winter coat is quite dark, brownish-tawny or dark tawny with a greyish tint. The flanks are lighter than the back, and the tail and feet are dark brown. The throat patch varies in form and size, but shows a tendency towards reduction.||Caucasus and contiguous parts of Turkey and Iran|
|Crimean beech marten|
Martes f. rosanowi
|Martino and Martino, 1917||A smaller subspecies than foina, but with near identical colours.||Montane Crimea|
|Syrian beech marten|
Martes f. syriaca
|Nehring, 1902||A pale coloured subspecies with a smaller skull than the nominative form||Syria|
|Lhasa beech marten|
Martes f. toufoeus
|Hodgson, 1842||Lhasa, Tibet|
The beech marten is superficially similar to the pine marten, but has a somewhat longer tail, a more elongated and angular head and has shorter, more rounded and widely spaced ears. Its nose is also of a light peach or grey colour, whereas that of the pine marten is dark black or greyish-black. Its feet are not as densely furred as those of the pine marten, thus making them look less broad, with the paw pads remaining visible even in winter. Because of its shorter limbs, the beech marten's manner of locomotion differs from that of the pine marten ; the beech marten moves by creeping in a polecat-like manner, whereas the pine marten and sable move by bounds. The weight load per 1 cm2 of the supporting surface of the beech marten's foot (30.9 gm) is double that of the pine marten (15.2 gm), thus it is obliged to avoid snowy regions.
Its skull is similar to that of the pine marten, but differs in its shorter facial region, more convex profile, its larger carnassials and smaller molars. The beech marten's penis is larger than the pine marten's, with the bacula of young beech martens often outsizing those of old pine martens. Males measure 430–590 mm in body length, while females measure 380–470 mm. The tail measures 250–320 mm in males and 230–275 mm in females. Males weigh 1.7–1.8 kg in winter and 2–2.1 kg in summer, while females weigh 1.1–1.3 kg in winter and 1.4–1.5 kg in summer.
The beech marten's fur is coarser than the pine marten's, with elastic guard hairs and less dense underfur. Its summer coat is short, sparse and coarse, and the tail is sparsely furred. The colour tone is lighter than the pine marten's. Unlike the pine marten, its underfur is whitish, rather than greyish. The tail is dark-brown, while the back is darker than that of the pine marten. The throat patch of the beech marten is always white. The patch is large and generally has two projections extending backwards to the base of the forelegs and upward on the legs. The dark colour of the belly juts out between the forelegs as a line into the white colour of the chest and sometimes into the neck. In the pine marten, by contrast, the white colour between the forelegs juts backwards as a protrusion into the belly colour.
The beech marten is mainly a crepuscular and nocturnal animal, though to a much lesser extent than the European polecat. It is especially active during moonlit nights. Being a more terrestrial animal than the pine marten, the beech marten is less arboreal in its habits, though it can be a skilled climber in heavily forested areas. It is a skilled swimmer, and may occasionally be active during daytime hours, particularly in the summer, when nights are short. It typically hunts on the ground. During heavy snowfalls, the beech marten moves through paths made by hares or skis.
Social and territorial behaviours
In an area of northeastern Spain, where the beech marten still lives in relatively unmodified habitats, one specimen was recorded to have had a home range of 52.5 ha (130 acres) with two centres of activity. Its period of maximum activity occurred between 6-12 PM. Between 9-6 PM, the animal was found to be largely inactive. In urban areas, beech martens den almost entirely in buildings, particularly during winter. The beech marten does not dig burrows, nor does it occupy those of other animals. Instead, it nests in naturally occurring fissures and clefts in rocks, spaces between stones in rock slides and inhabited or uninhabited stone structures. It may live in tree holes at a height of up to 9 metres.
Reproduction and development
Estrus and copulation occur at the same time as in the pine marten. Mating occurs in the June–July period, and takes place in the morning or in moonlit nights on the ground or on the roofs of houses. The gestation period lasts as long as the pine marten's, lasting 236–237 days in the wild, and 254–275 days in fur farms. Parturition takes place in late March-early April, with the average litter consisting of 3-7 kits. The kits are born blind, and begin to see at the age of 30–36 days. The lactation period lasts 40–45 days. In early July, the young are indistinguishable from the adults.
The beech marten's diet includes a much higher quantity of plant food than that of the pine marten and sable. Plant foods eaten by the beech marten include cherries, apples, pears, plums, black nightshade, tomatoes, grapes, raspberries and mountain ash. Plant food typically predominates during the winter months; one specimen was recorded to have eaten the contents of two dry fruit sacks throughout one winter. Rats and mice are also eaten, and chickens are caught only rarely. Among bird species preyed upon by the beech marten, sparrow-like birds predominate, though snowcocks and partridges may also be taken. The marten likes to plunder nests of birds including passerines, galliformes and owls, preferring to kill the parents in addition to the fledglings. Although it rarely attacks poultry, some specimens may become specialised poultry raiders, even when wild prey is abundant. Males tend to target large, live prey more than females, who feed on small prey and carrion with greater frequency.
Relationships with other predators
In areas where the beech marten is sympatric with the pine marten, the two species avoid competing with one another by assuming different ecological niches; the pine marten feeds on birds and rodents more frequently, while the beech marten feeds on fruits and insects. There is however one case of a subadult beech marten being killed by a pine marten. The beech marten has been known to kill European polecats on rare occasions. Red foxes and lynxes may prey on adults, whereas juveniles are vulnerable from attack by birds of prey and wildcats. There is however one case from Germany of a beech marten killing a domestic cat.
The beech marten is a widespread species which occurs throughout much of Europe and Central Asia. It occurs from Spain and Portugal in the west, through Central and Southern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, extending as far east as the Altai and Tien Shan mountains and northwest China. Within Europe, the species is absent in the British Isles, Scandinavian peninsula, Finland, the northern Baltic and northern European Russia. It occurs in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan and was recently confirmed to inhabit northern Burma.
Introduction in North America
The beech marten is present in Wisconsin, particularly near the urban centres surrounding Milwaukee. It is also present in several wooded, upland areas in the Kettle Moraine State Forest, and in nearby woodlands of Walworth, Racine, Waukesha and probably Jefferson Counties. North American beech martens are likely descended from feral animals which escaped a private fur farm in Burlington during the 1940s.
Relationships with humans
Hunting and fur use
Although the beech marten is a valuable animal to the fur trade, its pelt is inferior in quality to the pine marten's and sable's. Its presence in the fur markets of the Soviet Union was not great, with beech marten skins constituting no more than 10-12% of that of processed pine marten skins. It was caught only in the Caucasus, in the montane part of Crimea, in the republics of Middle Asia and, in very small numbers, in the Ukraine. Because of a lack of more valuable furbearers in those areas, the beech marten is of high local value in the budget of native market hunters. The species is captured with jaw traps, box traps for live capture. The shooting of beech martens is inefficient, and trailing them with dogs is only successful when the animal lies up in a tree hollow.
Since the mid-1970s, the beech marten has been known to occasionally cause damage to cars. Cars attacked by martens typically have cut tubes and cables. A beech marten can slice through the cables of a starter motor with just one bite. The reason for this is not fully known, as the damaged items are not eaten. There is however a seasonal peak in marten attacks on cars in spring, when young martens explore their surroundings more often and have yet to learn which items in their habitat are edible or not. The fishoil, often contained in the cables of cars of Japanese origin, may contribute to this.
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