The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (April, 2006) http://www.redlist.org External link.
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Nature Wildlife (April, 2006) External link.
  • 2011. Hippopotamus. Pp. electronic database in P Lagassé, ed. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, 6th Edition. Columbia University: Columbia University Press. Accessed February 09, 2012 at
  • 3. The Ultimate Ungulate Page (April, 2006) External link.
  • 4. Burnie, D. (2001) Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  • 5. CITES (April, 2006) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 6. Eltringham, S.K. (1993) The Common Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). In: Oliver, W.L.R. Ed. Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Available at External link.
  • 7. The Big Zoo (April, 2006) External link.
  • 8. Animal Diversity Web (April, 2006) http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu External link.
  • 9. IUCN/SSC Hippo Specialist SubGroup (April, 2006) External link.
  • Barklow, W. 2004. Amphibious communication with sound in Hippopotamus amphibius. Animal Behaviour, 68/5: 1125-1132.
  • Blowers, T., J. Waterman, C. Kuhar, T. Bettinger. 2010. Social behaviors within a group of captive female Hippopotamus amphibius. Journal Of Ethology, 28/2: 287-294.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Coughlin, B., F. Fish. 2009. Hippopotamus underwater locomotion: Reduced gravity movements for a massive mammal. Journal Of Mammalogy, 90/3: 675-679.
  • Eltringham, S. 1999. The Hippos. Soho Square, London: T and A.D. Poyser Ltd.
  • Eltringham, S. K. 1999. The Hippos. Academic Press, London and San Diego.
  • Estes, R. 1992. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Los Angeles, California: University of California Press.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • Lewison, R., J. Carter. 2004. Exploring behavior of an unusual megaherbivore: a spatially explicit foraging model of the hippopotamus. Ecological Modeling, 171/1–2: 127-138.
  • Lewison, R., W. Oliver. 2008. "Hippopotamus amphibius" (On-line). IUNC Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed February 01, 2012 at
  • M., Basuony., F. Gilbert., & S. Zalat.   (2010).  Mammals of Egypt: Atlas, Red Data Listing & Conservation, Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, Cairo..  
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Mosepele, K., P. Moyle, G. Merron, D. Purkey, B. Mosepele. 2009. Fish, floods, and ecosystem engineers: Aquatic conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Bioscience, 59/1: 53-64.
  • Nott, J. 1886. Wild Animals Potographed and Described. London: S. Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington.
  • Oliver, W. L. R. 1993. Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos, Status Survery and Conservation Action Plan. Iucn, Gland, Switzerland.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Promislow, D. E. L., and P. H. Harvey. 1990. Living Fast and Dying Young - a Comparative-Analysis of Life- History Variation among Mammals. Journal of Zoology 220:417-437.
  • Pushkina, D. 2007. The Pleistocene easternmost distribution in Eurasia of the species associated with the Eemian Palaeoloxodon antiquus assemblage.. Mammal Review, 37/3: 224-245.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Roomer, A. 1872. Anecdotal and Descriptive Natural History: The Hippopotamus. London: Groombridge.
  • Sibly, R. M., D. Collett, D. E. L. Promislow, D. J. Peacock, and P. H. Harvey. 1997. Mortality rates of mammals. Journal of Zoology 243:1-12.
  • Skinner, J. D., and R. H. N. Smithers. 1990. The mammals of the southern African subregion. University of Pretoria, Pretoria.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Stevenson-Hamilton, J. 1912. Animal Life in Africa. New York: E.P. Dutton and Company.
  • Wilson, A. 1882. Wild Animals and Birds: Their Haunts and Habits. London, Paris, New York: Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co..
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • World Health Organization, 2003. Dangerous aqueous animals. Guidelines for Safe Recreational Water Environments, 1/1: 173-188.
  • de Magalhaes, J., J. Costa. 2009. A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 22/8: 1770-1774.


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