The Marbled Cat is found from the Himalayan foothills in Nepal eastwards into southwest China, southwards throughout mainland Southeast Asia and on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. There are many recent records from protected and non-protected areas throughout its range - examples include Borneo: Danum Valley Conservation Area and surrounding production forest, Tabin Wildlife Reserve, Crocker Range National Park, Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Gomantong Forest Reserve, and Tawau Hills National Park (Hearn, Ross and Macdonald unpubl. data), Maliau Basin Conservation Area (Brodie and Giordano 2011), Deramakot Forest Reserve (Mohamed et al. 2009), Sabangau catchment (including Sebangau National Park) (Cheyne and Macdonald2010), Bawan Forest Complex, Kutai National Park, Murung Raya Forest Complex, Sungai Wain Protection Forest (Cheyne et al.in prep.), Upper Baram region of Sarawak (Mathai et al. 2010), Sumatra: Gunung Leuser National Park (Pusparini et al.2014), Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (Wibisono and McCarthy 2010), Peninsular Malaysia: Endau Rompin National Park (Gumal et al.2014), Myanmar: Taninthary Nature Reserve (Than Zaw et al. 2014), Thailand: Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary (Riggio and Lynam unpublished data),Cambodia: Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary (Gray et al.2014), PreahRoka Forest(Suzuki et al. 2015), north-east India: Namdapha Tiger Reserve (Datta et al.2008a,b; F. Ahmed et al.unpubl. data), Pakke Tiger Reserve (Lyngdoh et al.2011), Eaglenest WLS (Velho 2013, P. Choudhary et al. unpubl. data) in Arunachal Pradesh, Joypur-Dehing area in eastern Assam (K. Kakati unpubl. data), Manas Tiger Reserve in western Assam (Borah et al.2013) Dampa Tiger Reserve in Mizoram (Lalthanpuia et al.2012, P. Singh unpubl. data) and sighting records /reports from the Mishmi Hills (Raj Kamal Phukanpers. comm.) and South Garo Hills, Meghalaya (Samrakshan Trust 2007), Bhutan: Royal Manas National Park (Tempa et al.2013), Bangladesh: Moulvibazar district (Khan 2015).
The current assessment map shows range within existing forest cover (Hansen et al.2013, Miettinen et al.2011) but also includes small fragmented areas where Marbled Cats are known to still exist.
Marbled cats range from the Eastern Himalayas to Upper Burma and the Indochinese region. This distribution includes areas of northern India, Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo. In the Malay area they are rare and confined to the mainland.
Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )
- Medway, L. 1969. The wild mammals of Malay and offshore islands including Singapore. London: Oxford University Press.
- Sunquist, M., F. Sunquist. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University Chicago Press.
Nepal, Southeast Asia, Indonesia
The physical appearance of marbled cats is often compared to that of their close relative, clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa). They are close in size to house cats (Felis catus), but are longer and more slender. Young are mottled brown until they get their adult markings at about 4 months old. The fur is full and soft with widely variable markings. The base color is brownish yellow and the coat is covered in large blotches which are paler in their centers and outlined in black. Large broken blotches occur on the flanks and blackish lines occur on the head, neck, and back. These patterns tend to be smaller than in clouded leopards and they merge together resembling marble (hence the name marbled cat). Interrupted bands run from the corner of each eye over the head. The ears are short and rounded and are black with grey bars marking them. There is a white or buff spot on the back of each ear. The chin and upper lip are also white or buff in color. The tail is spotted and tipped with black, and about three quarters of the body length. Head and body length ranges from 45 to 61 cm. Height at shoulder averages 28 cm and tail length is 35 to 55 cm. Marbled cats have relatively large feet with very large heel pads. They have unmistakably large canines for cats of their size. The skull is high and rounded and wide across the zygomata. The eye socket is surrounded by a complete bony ring, unusual among felids. The occipital area is wide with low crests and the sagittal crest is quite small. The anterior upper pre-molar is absent or vestigial. There are 3 generally recognized subspecies, Pardofelis marmorata marmorata, Pardofelis marmorata charltoni, and Pardofelis marmorata longicaudata.
Range mass: 2.4 to 5 kg.
Average mass: 3.5 kg.
Range length: 45 to 61 cm.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry
Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike
- Pocock, F.R.S., R. 1939. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Red Lion Court, Feet Street, London, e.c. 4: The Patronage of Secretary of State for India.
- Postanowicz, R., Lioncrusher. 2008. "Marbled Cat" (On-line). Lioncrushers Domain - Carnivora Species Information. Accessed April 01, 2009 at http://www.lioncrusher.com/animal.asp?animal=60.
Habitat and Ecology
Current data suggest that the Marbled Cat is forest dependent, primarily associated with moist and mixed deciduous-evergreen tropical forest (Nowell and Jackson 1996), and may prefer hill forest (Duckworth et al. 1999, Holden 2001, Grassman et al. 2005). The increasing use of camera traps throughout its range is revealing detections from disturbed areas (e.g. Mohamed et al. 2009, Mathai et al.2010), including recently logged forest (e.g. Ross et al. 2010), but surveys of oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo have not detected marbled cats within the plantations (Ross et al.2010, Yue et al. in press). Grassman and Tewes (2002) reported a pair of adult Marbled Cats in a salt lick in Thailand's Phu Khieu National Park.
The Marbled Cat has never been intensively studied, but Grassman et al. (2005) report a preliminary home range estimate of 5.3 km for an adult female who was radio-collared and tracked for one month in Thailand's Phu Khieu National Park. There is no detailed information regarding Marbled Cat diet, but it probably preys primarily on rodents, including squirrels (Nowell and Jackson 1996), and birds.
The Marbled Cat appears to be primarily diurnal (Ross et al.2010, Lynam et al.2013).
Marbled cats have been recorded in a variety of habitats from sea level to 3,000 meters. Habitats include mixed deciduous-evergreen forest, secondary forest, clearings, six-year-old logged forest, and rocky scrub. Most sources describe this species as primarily arboreal. However many records of marbled cats are single observations and habitat and distribution may be wider than currently recognized.
Range elevation: 0 to 3000 m.
Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest
Other Habitat Features: riparian
- Arkive. 2009. "Arkive Images of Life on Earth" (On-line). Marbled Cat (Pardofelis Marmorata). Accessed April 03, 2009 at http://www.arkive.org/marbled-cat/pardofelis-marmorata.html.
Marbled cats are thought to prey primarily on birds and arboreal small mammals. Mammal prey includes tree squirrels, tree shrews, rats and mice, small primates, and fruit bats. Birds up to the size of pheasants are thought to be their primary prey. Other prey include lizards, frogs, and insects. In Borneo they may be more terrestrial and forage on the ground.
Animal Foods: birds; mammals; amphibians; reptiles; insects
Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates)
Marbled cats are important predators of birds and small mammals. There is no available information on their ecosystem roles otherwise.
Marbled cats are cryptically colored, extremely wary, and arboreal, helping them to avoid most predation. Marbled cats have exceptionally long canines in relation to other skull dimensions and, when coupled with their fierce demeanor when trapped, these teeth present a formidable defense. There are no observations of predation on marbled cats.
Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic
Life History and Behavior
Similar to domestic cats, marbled cats have been observed purring and their meow has been described as chirping instead of more continuous sound inflection. Marbled cats rely heavily on vision and have good vision in low light. Their shorter, more rounded skull with flattened broad nasals gives them unobscured forward vision. This morphology, in combination with large, amber-colored eyes with large, vertically-oriented elliptical pupils, provides maximum light gathering ability and telescopic vision necessary to navigate in low light conditions.
Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic
Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical
- Wildscreen, 2009. "Arkive Images of Life on Earth" (On-line). Marbled cat (Padofelis marmorata). Accessed April 03, 2009 at http://www.arkive.org/marbled-cat/pardofelis-marmorata.html.
The lifespan of P. marmorata in the wild may vary, in captivity the longest lifespan was 12 years and 3 months.
Status: captivity: 12.25 (high) years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Marbled cats are solitary animals. All observations of P. marmorata have been single animals, except for one in which a pair was observed crossing a salt lick in Thailand. It is suggested that pairs form only for a period of time to allow breeding. Almost no information is available on the mating system of marbled cats.
Rarely seen in the wild, there are currently no accounts of reproductive behavior of Pardofelis marmorata observed in their natural habitat. On a few occasions marbled cats have given birth in captivity, with 2 litters yielding 2 kittens each and another litter of 4 kittens. Estrus occurs monthly, without seasonal variation in captive animals. Once pregnant, gestation lasts from 66 to 82 days in marbled cats. Captive kittens can eat solid food by 59 days of age in captivity, which may indicate the earliest onset of weaning in the wild. In addition to gestation, lactation, and food supplementation, there is likely time involved in teaching kittens to hunt leaving only enough time for a single litter per year. One captive litter began at 4 kittens and was reduced to a single kitten, presumably by maternal infanticide. If infanticide is common in the wild and not just a result of captive stress, or if fertilization can overlap offspring rearing, it may be possible for marbled cats to have more than a single litter per year. Kittens begin walking at around 15 days but increased awareness and athletic movement occurred after 65 days old. Before kittens displayed this capacity to jump and climb it is likely they rely completely on their mother’s protection as well as their cryptic mottled colors for hiding. Marbled cats become sexually mature at around the age of 2 years.
Breeding interval: Breeding interval is not known, but it is likely that there is a maximum of 1 litter per year.
Breeding season: Breeding seasonality has not been reported, it may vary regionally.
Range number of offspring: 2 to 4.
Range gestation period: 66 to 82 days.
Average weaning age: 59 days.
Average time to independence: 121 minutes.
Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 21 to 22 months.
Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 21 to 22 months.
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous
Average birth mass: 85 g.
Average number of offspring: 2.
Information on parental investment in marbled cats is not reported in the literature. However, like most small cats, marbled cat females invest heavily in offspring through gestation and lactation, and probably also engage in significant post-weaning care and teaching. Less than 100 g when born, kittens develop quickly and have a full set of teeth. A kitten's eyes will be fully opened by 16 days and it will be able to walk by about 22 days.
Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)
- Grassman, L., M. Tewes, N. Silvy, K. Kreetiyutanont. 2005. Ecology of three sympatric felids in a mixed evergreen forest in north-central Thailand. Journal of Mammalogy, 86/1: 29-38.
- Indian Tiger Welfare Society, 2005. "Marbled Cat" (On-line). Accessed April 03, 2009 at http://www.indiantiger.org/wild-cats.html.
- Lekagul, B., J. McNeely. 1977. Mammals of Thailand. Kurusapha Ladprao: White Lotus.
- Pocock, R. 1867. The Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata) and some other Oriental Species, with Definitions of a new Genus of the Felidae. Proc. Zool. Soc.: 742-763.
- Sunquist, M., F. Sunquist. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University Chicago Press.
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
If future research challenges these key assumptions (presence in rugged terrain, over wide elevations, large geographic range, tolerance to some habitat degradation) or provides evidence of a substantially fragmented population, extremely low population density, heavy hunting pressure, or stronger support of the proposed species split, the status will need revising and it is likely that it would then qualify for Vulnerable, probably under Criterion C.
- 2008Vulnerable (VU)
- 2002Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996Data Deficient (DD)
- 1994Insufficiently Known (K)
- 1990Indeterminate (I)
- 1988Indeterminate (I)
- 1986Indeterminate (I)
Populations of marbled cats are thought to be around 10,000 individuals. Their natural rarity and reclusive nature makes accurate estimates hard to calculate. Because marbled cats are rare they are not common in fur or meat markets. There are countries where regulated hunting is permitted (Laos and Singapore) and countries that offer no protection outside of designated parks (Bhutan and Brunei). These cats are sensitive to any human disturbance and readily abandon areas with humans. They depend on intact forest habitats, making them vulnerable to habitat destruction from logging, agriculture, and development.
US Federal List: endangered
CITES: appendix i
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable
- 2009. "FCF / Feline Conservation Federation" (On-line). Marbled Cat. Accessed March 04, 2009 at http://www.felineconservation.org/feline_species/marbled_cat.htm.
Date Listed: 06/14/1976
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10)
Where Listed: Entire
Population location: Entire
Listing status: E
For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Pardofelis marmorata, see its USFWS Species Profile
There are no population density estimates for the Marbled Cat. In most surveys, detection rates tend to be lower for this species than some sympatric felids such as the Asiatic Golden Cat (e.g. Pusparini et al. 2014, Gumal et al. 2014, Than Zaw et al.2014) and both species of Clouded Leopard, but higher than others such as the Bay Cat (Ross et al.2010, Hearn, Ross and Macdonald unpubl. data). However, in some surveys, when individual animals have been identified, a similar number or even a higher number of individual Marbled Cats compared to Clouded Leopards have been found (Hearn, Ross and Macdonald unpubl. data). It is therefore possible that low detection rates may under some circumstances arise from cameras placed inappropriately for Marbled Cats, it is also likely that the population density will vary greatly across the range and it is important to note that many surveys have resulted in very few detections. However, unless population densities are very low, or the distribution extremely patchy it is likely that the total population numbers over 10,000 mature individuals, although this is certainly in decline.
The Marbled Cat is forest dependent and forest loss and degradation is continuing across its range from logging and expansion of human settlements and agriculture, including oil palm plantations. The Marbled Cat is valued for skin, meat and bones, although it is infrequently observed in the wildlife trade (Nowell and Jackson 1996). However, it is possible that illegal killing and trade is underreported compared to other species. Targeted and indiscriminate snaring are prevalent throughout much of the range and likely to pose a significant threat. They have been reported as poultry pests (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Mishra et al. 2006) which also results in retaliatory killing. Records of hunting and skins are known from several areas in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India - Vijaynagar-Gandhigram in Changlang district (A. Datta unpubl. data), West Kameng district (Mishra et al. 2006), Pakke Kessang, East Kameng district (Lyngdoh et al. 2011), Ziro valley, Lower Subansiri (Selvan et al. 2013) and from Khonoma in Nagaland (Grewal et al. 2011).
The Marbled Cat is listed on CITES Appendix I and is protected by national legislation across most of its range. Hunting is prohibited in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (Yunnan only), India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal and Thailand. Hunting regulations are in place in Lao PDR and Singapore (Nowell and Jackson 1996). It occurs in many protected areas, but levels of active protection for wildlife vary widely between countries and also between protected areas within countries; it alsooccurs inunprotected places. However, to better understand its conservation needs and to realize a better assessment in the future, further research is needed into Marbled Cat ecology, distribution and status. More information is especially required regarding the population density, the effects that habitat degradation has on population density and distribution, the extent of hunting and the frequency at which Marbled Cats appear in illegal trade.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Marbled cats are reclusive animals that avoid humans and are not known for having any negative impacts. There is one account of a marbled cat caught raiding a fowl pen. However, this kind of interaction is likely only where humans are invading and modifying native marbled cat habitat.
Marbled cats are charismatic and appealing animals. This makes them useful in winning popular support and funding for conservation efforts focused on their vulnerable ecosystems.
Positive Impacts: research and education
The marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata) is a small wild cat of South and Southeast Asia. Since 2002, it has been listed as Vulnerable by IUCN, as it occurs at low densities, and its total effective population size is suspected to be fewer than 10,000 mature individuals, with no single population numbering more than 1,000.
The marbled cat was once considered to belong to the pantherine lineage of "big cats". Genetic analysis has shown it to be closely related to the Asian golden cat and the bay cat, all of which diverged from the other felids about 9.4 million years ago.
The marbled cat is similar in size to a domestic cat, with a more thickly furred tail (which may be longer than the body), showing adaptation to its arboreal lifestyle, where the tail is used as a counterbalance. Marbled cats range from 45 to 62 cm (18 to 24 in) in head-body length, with a 35- to 55-cm tail. Recorded weights vary between 2 and 5 kg (4.4 and 11.0 lb). The coat is thick and soft, and varies in background color from dark grey-brown through yellowish grey to red-brown. Spots on the forehead and crown merge into narrow longitudinal stripes on the neck, and irregular stripes on the back. The back and flanks are marked with dark, irregular dark-edged blotches. The legs and underparts are patterned with black dots, and the tail is marked with black spots proximally and rings distally. In addition to its long tail, the marbled cat can also be distinguished by its large feet. It also possesses unusually large canine teeth, resembling those of the big cats, although these appear to be the result of parallel evolution.
When standing or resting, marbled cats assume a characteristic position with their backs arched.
Distribution and habitat
Marbled cats are found in tropical Indomalaya westward along the Himalayan foothills westward into Nepal and eastward into southwest China, and on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. They are primarily associated with moist and mixed deciduous-evergreen tropical forests.
- P. m. marmorata described by William Charles Linnaeus Martin in 1836 — lives in Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo northward to Myanmar
- P. m. charltoni described by John Edward Gray in 1846 — occurs in northern Myanmar, Sikkim, Darjeeling, and Nepal
Ecology and behavior
In May 2000, a female marbled cat was trapped along an animal trail in a hill evergreen bamboo mixed forest in Thailand's Phu Khieu Wildlife Sanctuary. This first-ever radio-tracked marbled cat had an overall home range of 5.8 km2 (2.2 sq mi) at an elevation of 1,000 to 1,200 m (3,300 to 3,900 ft) and was active primarily during nocturnal and crepuscular time periods.
Forest canopies probably provide the marbled cat with much of its prey: birds, squirrels and other rodents, and reptiles. In the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, a marbled cat was observed in a dense forest patch in an area also used by siamang.
A few marbled cats have been bred in captivity, with gestation estimated to be 66 to 82 days. In the few recorded instances, two kittens were born in each litter, and weighed from 61 to 85 g (2.2 to 3.0 oz). The eyes open at around 12 days, and the kittens begin to take solid food at two months, around the time that they begin actively climbing. Marbled cats reach sexual maturity at 21 or 22 months of age, and have lived for up to 12 years in captivity.
Indiscriminate snaring is prevalent throughout much of its range, and likely poses a major threat. It is valued for its skin, meat, and bones, but infrequently observed in the illegal Asian wildlife trade. During a survey in the Lower Subansiri District of Arunachal Pradesh, a marbled cat was encountered that had been killed by a local hunter for a festival celebrated by the indigenous Apatani community in March and April every year. The dead cat was used in a ceremony, and its blood was sacrificed to the deity for goodwill of their family and for ensuring a good harvest, protection from wildlife, disease and pest. Deforestation is a further threat to the marbled cat.
Pardofelis marmorata is included in CITES Appendix I and protected over parts of its range. Hunting is prohibited in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Yunnan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, and Thailand. Hunting is regulated in Lao PDR and Singapore. In Bhutan and Brunei, the marbled cat is not legally protected outside protected areas. No information about protection status is available from Cambodia and Vietnam.
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- Selvan, K.M., G.V. Gopi, B. Habib and S. Lyngdoh (2013). Hunting record of endangered Marbled Cat Pardofelis marmorata in the Ziro Valley of Lower Subansiri, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(1): 3583–3584.
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