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Overview

Brief Summary

Description

White-nosed Coatis are the most diurnal members of the family Procyonidae. They often sleep curled up in trees, and come down at dawn to forage, rooting with their long, mobile snouts and digging with long, curved claws for insects, larvae, eggs, and small vertebrates. Adult males often live alone, but females and young coatis travel together in bands, vocalizing and grooming each other. They do not hunt cooperatively or share food, but they join forces to defend against male coatis and other intruders. Females raise their young alone, in a nest. Mortality can be high when the young first leave the nest, from predators—including male coatis, big cats, monkeys, and boa constrictors—and accidents and disease.

Links:
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Distribution

The white-nosed coati ranges from southeastern Arizona through Mexico and Central America and into western Colombia and Ecuador. (Macdonald 1985)

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Range Description

The range of the white-nosed coati extends from Arizona and parts of southern New Mexico in the United States through Mexico (except the Baja peninsula and central Sierra Madres) and Central America to Panama and marginally into South America in areas west of the Andes (Glatston, 1994).
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Central Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and southern Texas south through Mexico (except Baja California) and Central America to northernmost Colombia, South America (Wozencraft, in Wilson and Reeder 1993). In Arizona and New Mexico, breeds from the Animas Mountains in southwestern New Mexico west to the Baboquivari Mountains in Arizona, and north as far as the Gila River; occurrences from farther north likely represent occasional wanderers or released captives (Gompper 1995). Current distribution and breeding status in Texas is uncertain.

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Physical Description

Morphology

The body length is 80-130 cm, over half of that being the tail. Their coat is a grayish brown with "silver grizzling" on the sides of the arms (Macdonald 1985). The snout is long and pointed with a flexible end. The face has a white band near the end of the nose. There is a white spot above and below each eye as well as on each cheek. Touches of white are also present on the underside of the throat and belly. The coati is plantigrade with shorter forelegs than hindlegs. The feet are black and have naked soles. The forefeet also have bent claws. The tapering tail of extreme length is covered with black rings and held erect while walking. The coat color and muzzle markings are the only physical characteristics dissimilar from its relatives the ringtailed coati (Nasua nasua) and the mountain coati (Nasuella olivacea).

Range mass: 3 to 5 kg.

Range length: 80 to 130 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average basal metabolic rate: 6.733 W.

  • Macdonald, D. 1985. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File, Inc..
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press University Press University Press.
  • Parker, S. 1989. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Hastings-on-Hudson, New York: The Language Service, Inc..
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Size

Length: 134 cm

Weight: 12200 grams

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Size in North America

Sexual Dimorphism: Males are larger than females.

Length:
Range: 750-1,350 mm

Weight:
Range: "2.5-5.5 kg "
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Diagnostic Description

See Gompper (1995).

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Ecology

Habitat

White-nosed coatis will occupy many different types of habitat, from tropical lowlands to dry, high-altitude forests. (Macdonald 1985)

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

Other Habitat Features: agricultural

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
White-nosed coatis inhabit woodland and open forests. Coatis are rarely seen in open grassland or desert. Their distribution in Arizona and New Mexico corresponds to that of Encinal and Mexican pine-oak woodland. In the southwestern U.S.A., they are found in oak woodlands or hardwood riparian canyons from 1,400-2,300 m. They are also occasionally seen in chaparral conifers. Many sightings have occurred in small isolated mountain ranges such as the Sierra Madre in Mexico and the Chiricahuas and Huachucas in the United States. Coatis are more active by day than by night. They run in bands of up to 30 individuals, although 12 is more typical. Adult males are typically solitary. They are highly adaptable but are basically tropical woodland and forest animals. They frequently climb to obtain fruits, although they are more typically seen on the ground. Their diet is omnivorous, typically consists of fruit and invertebrates (Gompper, 1995; Kaufmann, 1962; Valenzuela, 1998). They search for food both on the ground and in the forest canopy.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Broken tropical forests of coastal plains, pine forest, mesquite grassland, oak scrub. In southwestern U.S.: canyons (oak-sycamore-walnut, oak-pine, shrub-grass); usually near water. Dens in crevice, under tree roots, in cave or mine, or in hollow trees (Leopold 1959).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

White-nosed coatis are omnivores that primarily eat insects. They will travel up to 2000 meters in a single day in a quest for food. They forage by keeping their muzzle down close to the forest floor and sniff around to find beetles, spiders, scorpions, ants, termites, grubs, centipedes, and even land crabs. When plentiful, fruit is also eaten. Occasionally coatis may search for small vertebrates, such as mice, lizards, and frogs. When hunting, coatis will "force vertebrates to the ground with their paws and kill by a bite to the head" (Parker et al. 1990). (Macdonald 1985)

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Comments: Omnivorous. Preferred foods are fruits and berries, but bulbs, roots, leaves, insects, worms, spiders, lizards, small mammals, birds, and bird eggs also are eaten. May eat cultivated crops. Forages on ground and in trees.

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General Ecology

Often travels in groups of a dozen or more individuals; groups consist of mothers and young males and females during much of year. Males solitary most of year (Hoffmeister 1986).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Cyclicity

Comments: Some activity at night but primarily diurnal; most active in morning and evening. Active throughout the year.

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Life Expectancy

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
14.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 26.4 years (captivity) Observations: They reach adult growth in 1.2 years. In captivity, these animals have lived for 26.4 years (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Reproduction

In February or March, the most dominant male in a female band's range will be allowed to enter it ranks, first through grooming and other submissive behaviors. Once accepted into the group, the male will breed with each member of the band in a tree, and is soon afterwards driven away from the group. This is because they are known to kill juveniles. The gestation period of the white-nosed coati is 77 days. About 3 to 4 weeks before giving birth, the female will depart the band to build a nest, most often in a palm tree. Between 2 and 7 young are born, and remain in the nest for several weeks. They weigh only 100-180 grams at birth and are dependent on their mother, who only leaves the nest to find food. The newborns will open their eyes at 11 days and be weaned after 4 months. After 5 months the mother and young descend from the nest and rejoin their group. A short time afterwards the male that mated with the band will appear for a short time, several days in a row in order to recognize their young. Adult body sized is reached by 15 months. Sexual maturity is reached by three years if age in males and two years of age in females. (Macdonald 1985, Nowak 1999)

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Average birth mass: 140 g.

Average gestation period: 78 days.

Average number of offspring: 4.17.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
712 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
712 days.

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Brief pair-bond. Gestation lasts about 77 days. Young are born in early summer (June-July). Litter size is 4-6.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Nasua narica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

GACCGATGACTATTCTCCACAAACCACAAGGACATTGGCACCCTTTACCTCTTATTCGGAGCTTGAGCTGGGATAGCAGGGACTGCTCTT---AGTCTACTAATTCGTGCTGAACTAGGACAACCAGGCACTTTACTGGGTGAT---GATCAGATTTACAATGTAATTGTAACCGCCCATGCATTTGTAATAATCTTCTTCATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGTGGCTTCGGGAACTGATTAGTGCCTCTTATA---ATTGGCGCACCTGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAATATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTGCCTCCATCATTCCTCTTACTGCTAGCCTCTTCAATAGTGGAAGCAGGAGCAGGAACAGGATGAACTGTGTATCCCCCATTAGCAGGTAATTTAGCACATGCTGGGGCATCCGTAGACCTA---ACAATCTTCTCCCTTCACTTAGCAGGAGTTTCATCCATCTTGGGCGCTATTAACTTTATCACTACTATTATTAATATAAAACCTCCTGCTATATCACAATATCAAACCCCACTGTTCGTGTGATCAGTATTAATTACAGCAGTACTTCTATTACTATCTCTGCCAGTACTAGCAGCT---GGCATTACAATACTACTTACAGATCGAAATCTAAATACCACTTTCTTTGATCCAGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCAATTTTATACCAACACTTATTTTGATTTTTTGGACATCCCGAAGTATACATTTTAATTCTACCAGGTTTCGGAATAATCTCACACATCGTTACATTTTACTCAGGAAAAAAA---GAGCCTTTTGGTTATATAGGCATGGTTTGGGCAATAATATCAATCGGGTTTCTGGGTTTTATCGTATGAGCGCATCACATGTTTACAGTAGGAATAGACGTTGATACACGAGCATACTTCACCTCAGCTACTATAGTTATCGCAATTCCGACGGGAGTAAAAGTATTTAGCTGATTA---GCCACCCTACACGGAGGC---AATATTAAATGATCACCGGCTATGCTATGGGCTCTAGGGTTTATTTTCTTATTCACGGTAGGTGGTCTAACAGGAATCGTACTATCAAACTCATCGCTGGATATTATTCTTCATGATACATACTATGTAGTGGCTCACTTTCACTATGTA---CTGTCAATAGGAGCAGTTTTCGCTATTATAGGAGGGTTTGCTCACTGATTCCCGTTATTCTCGGGTTATATACTTAACGACGTTTGAGCCAAAGTTCACTTTACAATTATATTTATTGGAGTTAATATAACATTTTTTCCACAACATTTCCTAGGTCTGTCAGGTATACCTCGA---CGATACTCGGACTATCCAGATGCATACACA---ATATGAAATACAGTATCCTCCTTAGGCTCATTCATTTCTCTAATAGCTGTTATACTAATAACTTTCATAATCTGAGAGGCCTTTGCCTCAAAGCGAGAAGTA---GTTATAGTGGAACTCACCTCAACAAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Nasua narica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

This species of coati was very plentiful in the 1950s, but suffered major population declines in the early 1960s for unknown reasons. Populations have since been recovering and this population increase has been accompanied by a northward extension of their range. The threats to their numbers are legal hunting by humans and several predators including cats, boas, and large predatory birds. (Nowak 1999)

The species is rated "Lower Risk" by the IUCN. The government of Honduras has listed its population of the species in Appendix III of CITES, placing restrictions on international trade in their animals.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Samudio, R., Kays, R., Cuarón, A.D., Pino, J.L. & Helgen, K.

Reviewer/s
Duckworth, J.W. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Least Concern as although it is locally threatened as a result of ongoing habitat loss and hunting (Glatston 1994), but is not decline at a rate to nearly sufficient to qualify for a threat category. It has a wide distribution range and is present in many protected areas across its range.

History
  • 1996
    Lower Risk/least concern
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Population

Population
The numbers of this species are unknown and population estimates range from rare to common. It is rare in the United States and can be anything from common to scarce in Central America where its status is less well known, but indications are that its numbers have been greatly reduced (Janson, 1981). The Mexican population has probably been severely reduced and it may even be extirpated in certain areas. Population density is greater in the tropics than in southwestern United States. Both regions show year-to-year fluctuations in population sizes as a result of disease or food availability.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Coati are threatened by large scale habitat loss and in some areas hunting. In addition, the coati population in the United States is suspected to be gradually becoming genetically isolated from populations further south as a result of the situation in Mexico. This could lead to local extirpation of the coati in the United States. Coatis are hunted throughout their range either for their skin or for food. In the United States they are occasionally caught in traps set for other species, killed by hunters ostensibly looking for other species, or they fall victim to “predator” control campaigns. They apparently disappeared from the Burro Mountains in New Mexico at about the same time as a coyote poisoning campaign (Kaufmann et al., 1976). In addition, coatis are susceptible to canine distemper and rabies (Kaufmann et al. 1976).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
White-nosed coatis are classified as an endangered species in New Mexico and they are given total legal protection there. However, in Arizona, where most of the coatis in the United States live, they are subject to year round hunting. Coatis are listed in Appendix III of CITES by Honduras. Elsewhere in their range they do not appear to be afforded any official protection.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

White-nosed coatis will only occasionally cause crop damage, and rarely take small farm animals. (Nowak 1999)

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Coatis are hunted for their meat and may also be kept as pets. Their fur has no value. (Parker 1989)

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Wikipedia

White-nosed coati

The white-nosed coati (Nasua narica), also known as coatimundi /kˌɑːtɨˈmʌndi/, [3] [4] is a species of coati and a member of the family Procyonidae (raccoons and relatives). Local names include pizote, antoon, and tejón.[5] It weighs about 4–6 kg (8.8–13.2 lb).[6] However, males are much larger than females, and small females weigh as little as 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) and large males as much as 12.2 kg (27 lb).[7][8] On average, the total length is about 110 cm (43 in), about half of that being the tail length.

Habitat and range[edit]

Coati Nasua narica Side 2212px.jpg

White-nosed coatis inhabit wooded areas (dry and moist forests) of the Americas. They are found at any altitude from sea level to 3,000 m (9,800 ft),[9] and from as far north as southeastern Arizona and New Mexico, through Mexico and Central America, to far northwestern Colombia (Gulf of Urabá region, near Colombian border with Panama).[10][11] There has been considerable confusion over its southern range limit,[12] but specimen records from most of Colombia (only exception is far northwest) and Ecuador are all South American coatis.[10][11]

Coatis from Cozumel Island have been treated as a separate species, the Cozumel Island coati, but the vast majority of recent authorities treat it as a subspecies, N. narica nelsoni, of the white-nosed coati.[1][2][9][13] They are smaller than white-nosed coatis from the adjacent mainland (N. n. yucatanica), but when compared more widely to white-nosed coatis the difference in size is not as clear.[10] The level of other differences also support its status as a subspecies rather than separate species.[10]

White-nosed coatis have also been found in the US state of Florida, where they are an introduced species. It is unknown precisely when introduction occurred; an early specimen in the Florida Museum of Natural History, labeled an "escaped captive", dates to 1928. There are several later documented cases of coatis escaping captivity, and since the 1970s there have been a number of sightings, and several live and dead specimens of various ages have been found. These reports have occurred over a wide area of southern Florida, and there is probable evidence of breeding, indicating that the population is well established.[14]

Feeding habits[edit]

They are omnivores, preferring small vertebrates, fruits, carrion, insects, and eggs. They can climb trees easily, where the tail is used for balance, but they are most often on the ground foraging. Their predators include boas, raptors, hunting cats, and Tayras (Eira barbara). They readily adapt to human presence; like raccoons, they will raid campsites and trash receptacles. They can be domesticated easily, and have been verified experimentally to be quite intelligent.

Behavior[edit]

White-nosed Coati at Arenal, Costa Rica

While the raccoon and ringtail are nocturnal, coatis are active by day, retiring during the night to a specific tree and descending at dawn to begin their daily search for food. However, their habits are adjustable, and in areas where they are hunted by humans for food, or where they raid human settlements for their own food, they might become more nocturnal. Adult males are solitary, but females and sexually immature males form social groups. They use many vocal signals to communicate with one another, and also spend time grooming themselves and each other with their teeth and claws. During foraging times, the young cubs are left with a pair of babysitters, similar to meerkats. The young males and even some females tend to play-fight. Many of the coatis will have short fights over food.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b Samudio, R., Kays, R., Cuarón, A.D., Pino, J.L. & Helgen, K. (2008). Nasua narica. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
  3. ^ Nasua narica (Coatimundi, White-nosed Coati) at International Union for Conservation of Nature
  4. ^ Animal Diversity Web at University of Michigan. "Coatis are also referred to in some texts as coatimundis. The name coati or coatimundi is Tupian Indian in origin."
  5. ^ "Tejón", which means badger, is mainly used in Mexico.
  6. ^ David J. Schmidly; William B. Davis (1 August 2004). The mammals of Texas. University of Texas Press. pp. 167–. ISBN 978-0-292-70241-7. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  7. ^ North American Mammals: Nasua narica. Mnh.si.edu. Retrieved on 2011-09-15.
  8. ^ Coati (Nasua narica). Wc.pima.edu. Retrieved on 2011-09-15.
  9. ^ a b Reid, Fiona A. (1997). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico. pp. 259–260. ISBN 0-19-506400-3. OCLC 34633350. 
  10. ^ a b c d Decker, D. M. (1991). Systematics Of The Coatis, Genus Nasua (Mammalia, Procyonidae). Proceedings of The Biological Society of Washington 104: 370–386
  11. ^ a b Guzman-Lenis, A. R. (2004). Preliminary Review of the Procyonidae in Colombia. Acta Biológica Colombiana 9(1): 69–76
  12. ^ Eisenberg, J., and K. H. Redford (1999). Mammals of the Neotropcs: The Central Neotropics. Vol. 3, p. 288. ISBN 0-226-19541-4
  13. ^ Kays, R. (2009). White-nosed Coati (Nasua narica), pp. 527–528 in: Wilson, D. E., and R. A. Mittermeier, eds. (2009). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 1, Carnivores. ISBN 978-84-96553-49-1
  14. ^ Simberloff, Daniel; Don C. Schmitz; Tom C. Brown (1997). Strangers in Paradise: Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida. Island Press. p. 170. ISBN 1-55963-430-8. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Decker (1991) regarded N. narica of North and Central America as specifically distinct from N. nasua of South America. Jones et al. (1992) and Wozencraft (in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005) followed Decker in recognizing N. nasua and N. narica as distinct species. See Decker (1991) for a phylogenetic analysis on procyonid genera (analysis based on skeletal and soft morphological characters).

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