The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Borchiellini, C., C. Chombard, M. Manuel, E. Alivona, J. Vacelet, and N. Boury-Esnault. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Demospongiae: implications for classification and scenarios of character evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32(3):823-837.
  • Chombard, C., N. Boury-Esnault, A. Tillier, and J. Vacelet. 1997. Polyphyly of "sclerosponges" (Porifera, Demospongiae) supported by 28S ribosomal sequences. Biological Bulletin 193:359-367.
  • Erpenbeck, D., G. P. McCormack, J. A. J. Breeuwer and R. W. M. van Soest. 2004. Order level differences in the demosponge LSU structure? New insights in an old taxon. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32(1):388-395.
  • Gammill, E. R. (1997). Identification of Coral Reef Sponges. Tampa, Florida: Providence Marine Publishing, Inc.
  • Hooper, John N. A., and Rob W. M. van Soest, eds. 2002. Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. xlviii + 1708
  • Lavrov, D. V., X. Wang, and M. Kelly. 2008. Reconstructing ordinal relationships in the Demospongiae using mitochondrial genomic data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49(1):111-124.
  • Miloslavich P, Díaz JM, Klein E, Alvarado JJ, Díaz C, et al. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011916
  • Nichols, S. A. 2004. An evaluation of support for order-level monophyly and interrelationships within the class Demospongiae using partial data from the large subunit rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34(1):81-96.
  • Reid, R. E. H. 2003. Demosponge phylogeny. Pages 113-125 in: R. L. Kaesler, ed., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part E. (revised): Porifera. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas, Boulder and Lawrence.
  • Sollas, W.J. 1885b. A Classification of the Sponges. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 16(95): 395.
  • van Soest, R. (2009). Demospongiae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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