Sometimes taxonomists create new names for groups that already have a name. They may do this because they are unaware of the original name, or they may think the organism before them belongs to a different group when in fact it does not. If two or more names are found to apply to the same group, they are considered synonyms. In most cases, the first name takes priority and is considered to be the valid or accepted name. However, there can be exceptions, and it's not always easy to determine which of a series of synonyms should be considered valid or accepted. Here we list the synonyms provided to EOL by our classification partners. We also include other versions of the name that most likely refer to the same group, for example, misspellings in the literature or different variations of the authorship associated with the name.

Preferred marks the preferred name from each source.

NCBI Taxonomy

Name Relationship
Demospongiae Preferred
Ceractinomorpha Synonym

World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)

Name Relationship
Demospongiae Sollas, 1885 Preferred
Ceractinomorpha Lévi, 1953
Tetractinomorpha Lévi, 1953
Halisarcida Topsent, 1901
Petrosida Boury-Esnault & van Beveren, 1982
Nepheliospongida Bergquist, 1980
Choristida Sollas, 1885
Axinellida Lévi, 1953
Verticillitida Termier & Termier in Termier, Termier & Vachard, 1977
Keratosa Grant, 1861
Myxospongiae Haeckel, 1866
Gummineae Schmidt, 1862
Verongimorpha Erpenbeck, Sutcliffe, De Cook, Dietzel, Maldonado, van Soest, Hooper, Wörheide, 2012
Tetractinellida Marshall, 1876
Democlavia Sperling, Peterson & Pisani, 2009
Haploscleromorpha Cardenas, Perez & Boury-Esnault, 2012
Heteroscleromorpha Cardenas, Perez & Boury-Esnault, 2012
Spongillida Cardenas, Perez & Boury-Esnault, 2012
Chondrillida Redmond, Morrow, Thacker, Diaz, Boury-Esnault, Cardenas, Hajdu, Lobo-Hajdu, Picton, Pomponi, Kayal & Collins, 2013
Biemnida Morrow in Morrow, Redmond, Picton, Thacker, Collins, Maggs, Sigwart, Allcock, 2013
Monaxonida Ridley & Dendy, 1887
Cornacuspongia Vosmaer, 1887


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