Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
Diagnosis: Hyloxalus azureiventris can be distinguished from other related species, such as Cryptophyllobates chlorocraspedus by several characters, such as the presence and yellow or orange color of the dorsolateral stripes, the black legs with blue, green or yellow reticulated patterns, and the lack of webbing between the toes (Caldwell 2005).
Description: This medium-sized frog attains a SVL of 27 mm. The dorsal surface of the body is slightly granular, and the ventral surface is smooth. Maxillary teeth are present, and medial lingual process is absent. The snout is pointed in the lateral view. It is truncate when viewed dorsally. The canthus rostralis is rounded. The supratympanic fold is not visible behind the tympanum. The toes and fingers are not broadened, with slightly broadened tips, dorsally with paired raised scutes. The first finger is slightly longer than the second finger. Toes are not webbed (Kneller and Henle 1985).
Tadpole Morphology: Tadpole total length is approximately 11.5 mm (Kneller and Henle 1985). Body is relatively low, and tail is approximately same depth as body. Tadpole possesses a rounded tail fin and a dextral vent tube, with tail accounting for more than 70% of total length. Labial tooth row formula is two rows of denticles above, and 3 below (Lötters et al. 2000).
Coloration: The base color is black with a dorsal aposematic pattern. Bright yellow starts above the base of the thigh and continues along the upper eyelid over the canthus rostralis to the nose tip. Yellow dorsolateral lines start from the nose to the base of the arm and run continuously along the dorsum. The forerms, dorsum, and the legs are coated with a fine blue-green marbling. The ventral sides are black except for the hands and feet which have bright blue marbling (Kneller and Henle 1985).
Tadpole Coloration: Larval coloration is uniformly dark gray with a somewhat translucent tail (Lötters et al. 2000).
H. azureiventris was first described by Kneller and Henle (1985).
The phylogenetic relationships of H. azureiventris is relatively unknown. It is thought that Colostethus bocagei, Dendrobates sylvaticus, Crypotophyllobates chlorocraspedus, and Colostethus nexipus are the closest related species (Grant et al. 2006).
H. azureiventris has gone through several taxonomic changes from Phyllobates, Ameerega to Hyloxalus (Frost 2011).