Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 19 - 110
  Temperature range (°C): 16.470 - 16.470
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.552 - 1.552
  Salinity (PPS): 37.277 - 37.277
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.566 - 5.566
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.151 - 0.151
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.091 - 2.091

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 19 - 110
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.


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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Paramuricea clavata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.

There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

-- end --

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Paramuricea clavata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Paramuricea clavata

Paramuricea clavata, the violescent sea-whip, is a species of colonial soft coral in the family Plexauridae. It is found in shallow seas in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. This species was first described by the French naturalist Antoine Risso in 1826.


Paramuricea clavata has a branching structure forming a fan-shaped colony in a single plane. The stem and branches are stiffened by gorgonin, a complex protein that produces a horny skeleton. The coenenchyme, a thin living layer of cells, covers the skeleton and the polyps protrude from this, each with eight feeding tentacles surrounding a central mouth. The polyps are up to 10 mm (0.4 in) high and the whole colony up to one metre (yard) high and one metre across. The colour is usually red but may be partly yellow.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Paramuricea clavata is native to the coasts of Spain and Portugal in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, and to the western Mediterranean Sea. It grows on reefs with its base buried in the sediment at depths between 10 and 100 m (33 and 328 ft), but usually between 15 and 40 m (49 and 131 ft). It is considered to be an ecosystem engineer as its presence alters the flow of water, changes sedimentation rates and alters the distribution of nutrients, thus affecting many organisms in its vicinity.[3]


Paramuricea clavata is a filter feeder, the polyps extending their tentacles to catch food particles floating past. The diet includes copepods, diatoms, dinoflagellates, ciliates and organic carbon particles in suspension.[4]

Each colony is either male or female. Sperm is liberated into the sea by the male colonies and fertilisation occurs on the surface of the female colonies. The embryos are brooded there before being released as planula larvae into the water column. The larvae are photophobic and soon settle on the seabed. Once there, they develop into polyps and start secreting gorgonin to form the skeleton. Further growth of the colony is by budding of new polyps. Some new colonies may be formed from fragments that become detached from existing colonies.[5] Paramuricea clavata is a slow-growing species and colonies probably live for well over fifty years.[6]


  1. ^ van Ofwegen, Leen (2014). "Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  2. ^ Pontes, Miquel (2012-12-31). "La gorgonia roja" (in Spanish). Mare Nostrum. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  3. ^ Jones, Clive G.; Lawton, John H.; Shachak, Moshe (1994). "Organisms as Ecosystem Engineers". Oikos 69 (3): 373–386. JSTOR 3545850. 
  4. ^ Ribes, M.; Coma, R.; Gili, J. M. 1999b. Heterogeneous feeding in benthic suspension feeders: the natural diet and grazing rate of the temperate gorgonian Paramuricea clavata (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) over a year cycle. Marine Ecology Progress Series 183, 125-137.
  5. ^ Ribesl, R. M.; Zabala, M.; Gilil, J. M. (1995). Reproduction and cycle of gonadal development in the Mediterranean gorgonian Paramuricea clavata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 117, 173-183.
  6. ^ Cristina Linares, Daniel F. Doak, Rafel Coma, David Díaz, and Mikel Zabala (2007). "Life history and viability of a long-lived marine invertebrate: The octocoral Paramuricea clavata". Ecology 88: 918–928. doi:10.1890/05-1931. 
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