Animal / parasitoid / endoparasitoid
solitary larva of Trichogramma is endoparasitoid of egg of Bruchidius villosus

Animal / parasitoid / endoparasitoid
solitary larva of Trichogramma is endoparasitoid of egg of Callosobruchus maculatus


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Known prey organisms

Trichogramma (Trichogramma sp.2) preys on:
Bruchidius ater
Phytodecta olivacea

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:624
Specimens with Sequences:611
Specimens with Barcodes:550
Species With Barcodes:16
Public Records:228
Public Species:16
Public BINs:35
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Trichogramma are minute polyphagous wasps that are endoparasitoids of insect eggs.[1] Trichogramma is one of around 80 genera from the family Trichogrammatidae, with over 200 species worldwide.[2][3][4]

Although there are several groups of egg parasitoids commonly employed for biological control throughout the world, Trichogramma have been the most extensively studied.[5] There have been more than a thousand papers published on Trichogramma and they are the most used biological control agents in the world.[6]


Female adults use chemical and visual signals, such as eggs shape and colour, to locate target eggs.[6] When a suitable egg is found, an experienced female will use antennal drumming, tapping on the egg surface, and also using the ovipositor, to determine if the egg has previously been parasitized. Antennal drumming is also used to determine the size and quality of the target egg, which determines the number of eggs the female will insert.[7] A single female can parasitize one to ten host eggs a day.


Trichogramma are small and very uniform in structure which causes difficulty in identifying the separate species.[8][9] As females are all relatively similar, taxonomists rely upon examination of males to tell the different species apart using features of their antennae and genitalia.[10][11]

The first description of a Trichogramma species was in North America in 1871 by Charles V. Riley. He described the tiny wasps that emerged from eggs of the Viceroy butterfly as Trichogramma minutum.[3] In taxonomy, original specimens are very important as they are the basis of reference for subsequent descriptions of species. The original specimens, however, were lost. Riley also described a second species in 1879 as Trichogramma pretiosum, but these specimens were also lost. To correct these errors, entomologists returned to the areas where Riley originally found the species and obtained neotype specimens of T. minutum and T. pretiosum. These specimens are now preserved properly in the United States National Museum.[3] Currently the number of Trichogramma species is over 200 but as of 1960 only some 40 species of Trichogramma had been described.[12]

Biological control[edit]

Trichogramma have been used for control of lepidopteran pests for many years. They can be considered the Drosophila of the parasitoid world as they have been used for inundative releases and much of our understanding today comes from experiments with these wasps.[13]

Entomologists in the early 1900s began to rear Trichogramma for biological control. Trichogramma minutum is one of the most commonly found species in Europe and was first mass reared in 1926 on eggs of Sitotroga cerealella.[1]

Nine species of Trichogramma are produced commercially in insectaries around the world with 30 countries releasing them. Trichogramma are used for control on numerous crops and plants, these include cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, sugar beets, orchards and forests.[14] Some of the pests that are controlled include Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), Lightbrown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), and European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis).

Trichogramma species vary in their host specificity. This can lead to non-target hosts being parasitized. This can cause problems by reducing the amount of parasitism of the target host, and depending on the rate of parasitism, non-target effects could be significant on non-target host populations.

Species used[edit]

The most commonly used species for biological control are T. atopovirilia, T. brevicapillum, T. deion, T. exiguum, T. fuentesi, T. minutum, T. nubilale, T. platneri, T. pretiosum and T. thalense.[3]

Trichogramma pretiosum[edit]

Trichogramma pretiosum is the most widely distributed Trichogramma species in North America.[3] It has been the focus of many research studies and has been able to be reared on 18 genera of Lepidoptera. It is a more generalized parasitoid, able to parasitise a range of different species.

T. pretiosum was introduced into Australia in the 1970s as part of the Ord River Irrigation Area (ORIA) IPM scheme.[15][16]

Trichogramma carverae[edit]

Trichogramma carverae are mainly used for light brown apple moth and codling moth control and is predominately used in orchards.[17] In Australia T. carverae is used for biological control of light brown apple moth in vineyards. Though Australia has its own native Trichogramma species there has not been much work undertaken to commercially use them for biological control within Australia.[18]

Light brown apple moth is common throughout Australia and is polyphagous on more than 80 native and introduced species. The larvae are the stage that causes the most damage, especially to grape berries which provides sites for bunch rot to occur.[19] Losses in the crops can amount up to $2000/ha in one season. It is very predominant in areas like the Yarra Valley. Insecticide use is not a preferred method by most growers who prefer a more natural mean of controlling pests. As a result, Trichogramma were considered a good candidate for biological control as the larvae are difficult to control with insecticide and light brown apple moths are relatively vulnerable to egg parasitism with their eggs being laid in masses of 20-50 on the upper surfaces of basal leaves in grapevines.

Selected Species[edit]


  1. ^ a b Flanders, S; Quednau, W (1960). "Taxonomy of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Trichogrammatidae)". BioControl 5: 285–294. doi:10.1007/bf02372951. 
  2. ^ Consoli FL, Parra JRP, Zucchi RA (2010) 'Egg Parasitoids in Agroecosystems with Emphasis on Trichogramma.' (Springer).
  3. ^ a b c d e Knutson A (2005) 'The Trichogramma Manual: A guide to the use of Trichogramma for Biological Control with Special Reference to Augmentative Releases for Control of Bollworm and Budworm in Cotton.' (Texas Agricultural Extension Service).
  4. ^ Sumer, F; Tuncbilek, AS; Oztemiz, S; Pintureau, B; Rugman-Jones, P; Stouthamer, R (2009). "A molecular key to the common species of Trichogramma of the Mediterranean region". BioControl 54: 617–624. doi:10.1007/s10526-009-9219-8. 
  5. ^ Upadhyay RK, Mukerji KG, Chamola BP (2001) 'Biocontrol potential and its Exploitation in Sustainable Agriculture: Insect Pests.' (Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers).
  6. ^ a b Knutson A (2005) 'The Trichogramma Manual: A guide to the use of Trichogramma for Bilogical Control with Special Reference to Augmentative Releases for Control of bollworm and Budworm in Cotton.' (Texas Agricultural Extension Service).
  7. ^ Klomp, H; Teerink, B.J.; Wei, Chun Ma (1979). "Discrimination Between Parasitized and Unparasitized Hosts in the Egg Parasite Trichogramma embryophagum (Hym.=Trichogrammatidae)=a Matter of Learning and Forgetting". Netherlands Journal of Zoology (Koninklijke Brill NV) 30 (2): 254–27. doi:10.1163/002829679X00412. ISSN 0028-2960. Retrieved May 22, 2014. 
  8. ^ Nagarkatti, S; Nagaraja, H (1977). "Biosystematics of Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea species". Annual Review of Entomology 22: 157–176. doi:10.1146/annurev.en.22.010177.001105. 
  9. ^ Thomson, LJ; Rundle, BJ; Carew, ME; Hoffmann, AA (2003). "Identification and characterization of Trichogramma species from south-eastern Australia using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region of the ribosomal gene complex". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 106: 235–240. doi:10.1046/j.1570-7458.2003.00029.x. 
  10. ^ Nagarkatti, S; Nagaraja, H (1971). "Redescriptions of some known species of Trichogramma (Hym., Trichogrammatidae), showing the importance of the male genitalia as a diagnostic character". Bulletin of Entomological Research 61: 13–31. doi:10.1017/s0007485300057412. 
  11. ^ Polaszek, A; Rugman-Jones, P; Stouthamer, R; Hernandez-Suarez, E; Cabello, T; Pino Pérez, M (2012). "Molecular and morphological diagnoses of five species of Trichogramma: biological control agents of Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Canary Islands". BioControl 57: 21–35. doi:10.1007/s10526-011-9361-y. 
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ Smith SM (1996) Biological control with Trichogramma: advances, successes, and potential of their use. In 'Annual Review of Entomology' pp. 375-406.
  14. ^ Hassan, SA (1993). "The mass rearing and utilization of Trichogramma to control lepidopterous pests: Achievements and outlook". Pesticide Science 37: 387–391. doi:10.1002/ps.2780370412. 
  15. ^ Davies, AP; Zalucki, MP (2008). "Collection of Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from tropical northern Australia: a survey of egg parasitoids for potential pest insect biological control in regions of proposed agricultural expansion". Australian Journal of Entomology 47: 160–167. doi:10.1111/j.1440-6055.2008.00644.x. 
  16. ^ Davies, AP; Pufke, US; Zalucki, MP (2011). "Spatio-temporal variation in Helicoverpa egg parasitism by Trichogramma in a tropical Bt-transgenic cotton landscape". Agricultural and Forest Entomology 13: 247–258. doi:10.1111/j.1461-9563.2010.00512.x. 
  17. ^ Llewellyn R (2002) The good bug book: beneficial organisms commercially available in Australia and New Zealand for biological pest control.' (Integrated Pest Management Pty Ltd).
  18. ^ Glenn, DC; Hercus, MJ; Hoffmann, AA (1997). "Characterizing Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) species for biocontrol of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in grapevines in Australia". Annals of the Entomological Society of America 90: 128–137. 
  19. ^ Glenn, DC; Hoffmann, AA (1997). "Developing a commercially viable system for biological control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in grapes using endemic Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)". Journal of Economic Entomology 90: 370–382. 
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