The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (January, 2006) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 1991. Tachyglossus aculeatus. Pp. xviii-xix, 2-3 in R Strahan, ed. The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals. New South Whales: Cornstalk Publishing.
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Slater, P. (2000) Encyclopedia of Australian Wildlife. Steve Parish Publishing Pty Ltd, Queensland, Australia.
  • 3. Animal Diversity Web (February, 2006) External link.
  • 4. Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania (February, 2006) External link.
  • 5. Kleiman, D.G., Geist, V., Hutchins, M. and McDade, M.C. (2003) Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Vol 12, Mammals I. Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Michigan.
  • 6. Rismiller, P.D. (1999) The Echidna, Australia's Enigma. Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Connecticut.
  • 7. Macdonald, D. (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 8. NatureBase: Department of Conservation and Land Management, Government of Western Australia (February, 2006) External link.
  • Abenspergtraun, M., C. R. Dickman, and E. S. Deboer. 1991. Patch Use and Prey Defense in a Mammalian Myrmecophage, the Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) (Monotremata, Tachyglossidae) - a Test of Foraging Efficiency in Captive and Free-Ranging Animals. Journal of Zoology 225:481-493.
  • Abenspergtraun, M., and E. S. Deboer. 1992. The Foraging Ecology of a Termite-Eating and Ant-Eating Specialist, the Echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus (Monotremata, Tachyglossidae). Journal of Zoology 226:243-257.
  • Aplin, K., C. Dickman, L. Salas, K. Helgen. 2008. Tachyglossus aculeatus. 2008 IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species. Accessed November 15, 2008 at
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Elridge, D., A. Mensing. 2007. Foraging pits of the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) as small-scale patches in a semi-arid Australian woodland. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39: 1055-1065.
  • Fitzgibbon, C. D. 1997. The adaptive significance of monogamy in the golden-rumped elephant-shrew. Journal of Zoology 242:167-177.
  • Green, B., M. Griffiths, and K. Newgrain. 1992. Seasonal Patterns in Water, Sodium and Energy Turnover in Free- Living Echidnas, Tachyglossus aculeatus (Mammalia, Monotremata). Journal of Zoology 227:351-365.
  • Griffiths, M. 1989. Tachyglossidae. Pages 407-436 in D. W. Walton and B. J. Richardson, editors. The Fauna of Australia. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Griffiths, M., F. Kristo, B. Green, A. C. Fogerty, and K. Newgrain. 1987. Observations on free-living, lactating echidnas, Tachyglossus aculeatus (Monotremata: Tachyglossidae) and sucklings. Australian Mammalogy 11:135-143.
  • Groves, C. 2005. Tachyglossus aculeatus. Pp. 1-2 in D Wilson, D Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic Reference, Vol. 1. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Hulbert, A., L. Beard, G. Grigg. 2008. The exceptional longevity of an egg-laying mammal, the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is associated with peroxidation-resistant membrane composition. Experimental Gerontology, 43: 729-733.
  • Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. American Naturalist 157:637-645.
  • Lovegrove, B. G. 2000. The Zoogeography of Mammalian Basal Metabolic Rate. American Naturalist 156:201-219.
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • McNab, B. K. 1984. Physiological Convergence Amongst Ant-Eating and Termite-Eating Mammals. Journal of Zoology 203:485-510.
  • Menzies, J. 1991. A Handbook of New Guinea Marsupials and Monotremes, Kristen Pres Inc, Papua New Guinea.
  • Michael Augee et al. (2006) Echidna: Extraordinary Egg-Laying Mammal. CSIRO Publishing.
  • Nicol, S., N. Anderson. 2007. Cooling rate and body temperature regulation of hibernating echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 210: 586-592.
  • Nicol, S., N. Anderson. 2007. The history of an egg-laying mammal, the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Ecoscience, 14: 275-285.
  • Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. 6 edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
  • Nowak, Ronald M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World, vol. 1, 5th ed.
  • Nowak, Ronald M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World, vol. 1, 5th ed. 1629
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Riek, A. 2008. Relationship between metabolic rate and body weight in mammals: effect of the study. Journal of Zoology, 276: 187-194.
  • Rismiller, P. D., and M. W. McKelvey. 2000. Frequency of breeding and recruitment in the short-beaked echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Journal of Mammalogy 81:1-17.
  • Ronald Nowak (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Rose, R. W., C. M. Nevison, and A. F. Dixson. 1997. Testes weight, body weight and mating systems in marsupials and monotremes. Journal of Zoology 243:523-531.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142


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