DistributionRead full entry
Range DescriptionThere are 10 recognized subspecies:
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollis (Brazil, Peru)
Spixs Saddleback Tamarin occurs to the south of the Rio Solimes in Brazil, between the Rio Javar in the west, east through the Rio Juta basin to the Rio Juru (left bank) (Hershkovitz 1977, Peres 1993a). Hodun et al. (1981, see also Soini 1990a,b; Aquino and Encarnacin 1994) also found it in Peru, west of the Ro Yavar as far as the Ro Tapiche, an eastern tributary of the Ro Ucayali, and extending north from there as far as the Ro Blanco (left or western bank), where it meets the range of S. f. nigrifrons (right, eastern bank of Ro Blanco). S. f. illigeri occurs west of the Ro Tapiche (left bank), and S. f. fuscicollis is replaced by S. f. nigrifrons again at the headwaters of the Ro Tapiche. In the south, it is replaced by S. f. weddelli on the uppermost reaches of the Rios Javar and Juru near the frontier with Peru (see Aquino and Encarnacin 1994; Peres 1993a; Peres et al. 1996). The altitudinal range is 75150 m above sea level (Hershkovitz 1977). S. f. fuscicollis is sympatric with Spixs Moustached Tamarin, S. m. mystax, throughout its geographic distribution.
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus (Brazil, Colombia)
Lessons Saddle-back Tamarin is the most northerly known subspecies of the Saddleback Tamarin. It occurs in the lowland forests north of the Rio Solimes, ranging north-west between the Rio Japur-Caquet and I-Putumayo in Brazil and Colombia (Hershkovitz 1968). In Brazil, the easternmost locality known for S. f. fuscus is the Rio Tonantins, a north bank tributary of the Rio Solimes (Hershkovitz 1977). According to Hernndez-Camacho and Cooper (1976), in Colombia S. f. fuscus also extends north of the middle Ro Caquet, west of the Ro Yar (a northern tributary), through the basin of the Rio Cagun, and lower parts of the Ro Orteguaza, west to the Andean foothills to an altitude of 500 m above sea level. It extends north to the right bank of the Ro Guayabero and possibly east to the region of around San Jos de Guaviare on the southern bank of the Ro Guaviare, about 1 hour by boat downstream from the confluence of the Ros Guayabero and Ariari, to the headwaters of the Ros Vaups and Apaporis in the southern department of Meta (Hernndez-Camacho and Cooper 1976). To the east from there it is replaced by Saguinus inustus (see Defler 1994, 2004). On the upper Ro Putumayo it follows the left (north) bank of the Ro Sucumbos (Hernndez-Camacho and Defler 1989). Hernndez-Camacho and Cooper (1976, see also Defler 1994) indicated that the form found north of the Ro Caquet, to the region of San Jos de Guaviare is possibly not S. f. fuscus but a subspecies which has yet to be described. It is not known if S. f. fuscus or some undescribed form of S. fuscicollis occurs between the Ris Apaporis and Caquet, along the left (east) bank of the Ro Yar (Hernndez-Camacho and Cooper 1976). In this region, S. inustus is believed to be limited to the north (left) bank of the Ro Apaporis. Regarding the occurrence of S. f. fuscus to the north of the Ro Caquet, it should be noted that Hershkovitz (1977, 1982) restricted its range to the basin of the Ro Orteguaza and the right bank of the Ro Cagun.
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi (Brazil)
Although based only on its type locality at the mouth of the Lago de Tef, south bank of the Ro Solimes, and a specimen from Ayapu, left bank of the Rio Purus (Napier 1976), more recent evidence has confirmed the distribution of S. f. avilapiresi proposed by Hershkovitz (1977) as extending along the south of the Rio Solimes between the Rios Juru and Purus, including the basins of the Rios Urucu and Coar, and probably the Ro Tef. Johns (1985, 1986) recorded S. f. avilapiresi at his study site on the Lago de Tef, left bank of the Rio Tef, although it was very uncommon there, and Peres (1991) recorded the subspecies from Jaraqui, on the right (east) bank of the Rio Juru. These records confirm the distribution proposed by Hershkovitz (1977). The southern limits are not known but possibly in the region of the north bank of the Rio Tapau, an affluent of the Rio Purus, but Saddleback Tamarins have not been recorded for this region.
Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai (Brazil?, Peru)?
The distribution of this subspecies is not known with certainty. Through some rather complicated detective work, as well as indications concerning its affinities in pelage colour and patterns, Hershkovitz (1968) concluded that the most likely provenance of this distinct Saddleback Tamarin is the upper Rio Purus in Brazil. Hershkovitz (1968, 1977, p.636) placed it tentatively in the upper Rio Purus region, south of the Rio Tapau to the Rio Pauin, both left bank tributaries of the Rio Purus. However, following the discovery of S. f. primitivus, described by Hershkovitz (1977) in an addendum and evidently occupying this region, he placed it, equally tentatively, north of the Rio Tapau, where no Saddleback Tamarins have recorded to date (Hershkovitz 1977, p. 622). This is to the south of the known geographic range of S. f. avilapiresi, at the headwaters of the Rio Coar, and the Rio Repartimento, a right bank tributary of the Rio Tef.
Van Roosmalen (5 August 2003) reported locating S. fuscicollis cruzlimai in the wild, and informed that Hershkovitz (1977) had been correct in believing that it occurred between the Rios Pauin and Tapau, west of the Rio Purus. It was observed by T. van Roosmalen on 21 June 2002, on the west bank of the Rio Purus, opposite the mouth of the Rio Sepatini (Van Roosmalen, 16 August, 2003).
Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys (Peru)
This subspecies is confined to north-central Peru, from San Martin, through Huanaco and Pasco to the Ro Perene, northern Juno, east to the ro Ucayali in Loreto to as far north as the Ro Pisqui (Hershkovitz 1977). To the west, it is limited by the Andes, probably not occurring above altitudes of about 900-1,000 m (Hershkovitz 1977). Freese et al. (1982) observed no primate species at Moyobamba, in the upper Mayo Forest Reserve, at an altitude of 1,000 m above sea level. S. fuscicollis occurs in the Panguana Biological Station, on the left (south) bank of the Ro Yuyapichis, a tributary of the Ro Pachitea, in Department of Pasco, about 150 km south of Pucallpa, in the eastern central part of Peru (937'S, 7456'W) (Hutterer et al. 1995), and is presumably S. f. leucogenys.
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons (Peru)
This subspecies occurs in Peru, between the Ros Amazonas and Yavar, and along the right bank of the Ro Ucayali as far as the Ro Blanco (Hodun et al. 1981; Soini 1990a; Aquino and Encarnacin 1994). Upstream of the Ro Ucayali along both sides of the river (to the south of the Rio Blanco), it is replaced by Illigers Saddleback Tamarin, S. f. illigeri. Strangely, S. f. nigrifrons appears again on the the right (east) bank of the Ro Ucayali at the headwaters of the Ro Tapiche, a left bank tributary of the Rio Blanco, probably extending east as far as the Ro Yavar, on the border with Brazil. This southern population is based on a specimen collected by R. W. Hendee in the Cerro Azul, Contamana, in 1927 (Hershkovitz 1977). The southern limit is given by Hershkovitz (1977) and Aquino and Encarnacin (1994) as the right bank of the Ro Ucayali across the river from Pucallpa. There are, therefore, two disjunct populations of S. f. nigrifrons, separated by S. f. illigeri (between the Ros Ucayali and Tapiche/Blanco), and S. f. fuscicollis which crossed the Ro Yavar from the east to occupy the left bank of the Ro Blanco (as far as the mouth of the Ro Tapiche) and the right bank of the Ro Tapiche (Soini 1990a,b).
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus (Ecuador, Peru)
Saguinus. f. lagonotus occurs between the Ros Napo and Maran, west to the Andes in Peru and eastern Ecuador (Hershkovitz 1968, 1977). In Peru, it occurs north of the Ro Maran as far west as the Ro Chinchipe along the foothills of the Cordillera del Condor (Aquino and Encarnacin 1994). Hodun et al. (1981) confirmed its presence on the left bank of the Ro Maran, and Aquino and Encarnacin (1996) recorded it from the right bank of the Rio Napo from Pantoja (frontier with Ecuador) to its confluence with the Rio Amazonas. S. f. lagonotus is in this case sympatric with S. tripartitus between the Ros Curaray and Napo in Ecuador (see Albja 1994; Tirira 2007). Thorington (1988) argued that Hershkovitzs (1977) restriction of S. f. lagonotus to the right bank of the Ro Napo is not necessarily valid and that it may extend north of the river, where it would be sympatric with (but not necessarily occurring in the same habitats) as S. tripartitus. For this reason, Thorington (1988) regarded S. tripartitus to be a full species, whereas Hershkovitz (1977) regards it as subspecific to S. fuscicollis. Aquino and Encarnacin (1996) were unable to provide any evidence for the presence of S. f. lagonotus on the north (left) bank of the Ro Napo in Peru. The only locality where it is known to extend north of the Napo is in Ecuador at La Coca, mouth of the Ro Coca, a northern tributary (Hershkovitz 1977). The altitudinal range is from 100 m to approximately 1,200 m in the far west of its range (Hershkovitz 1977). Tirira (2007) gives and altitudinal range of 200 m to 1,160 m above sea level in Ecuador.
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri (Peru)
This subspecies occurs in Peru, between the Ros Huallaga and Ucayali, south of the Ro Maraon (Hershkovitz 1977). S. f. illigeri also extends east of the Ro Ucayali, from the mouth of the Ro Blanco and along the left bank of the Ro Tapiche (Hodun et al. 1981, Soini 1990a,b; Aquino and Encarnacin 1994). How far south it occurs, east of the Ro Ucayali, is not clearly known, although Hershkovitz (1977) indicated that it is limited to the Ros Caxiabatay or Pisqui, west of the Ro Ucayali, in the region of Contamana. Aquino and Encarnacin (1994) indicated that it occurs south to about 610'S, north of Hershkovitzs projection, although in their distribution map (p.108) they extended the range to nearly 9S.
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru)
Saguinus f. weddelli has the widest distribution of the S. fuscicollis subspecies. It ranges from southern Peru, from the Ro Abujao (east tributary of the Ro Ucayali), south along both banks of the Ro Ucayali east of the Andes, east of the Ro Apurimac, and along the upper reaches of such rivers as the Apurimac, Inambari, Urubamaba and Tambopata, to the Rios Madeira and Beni or Mamor in Bolivia. It extends north in Brazil between the Rios Purus and Madeira in Acre and Amazonas and part of Rondnia, but is known only as far north as the Rio Pixuna (Hershkovitz 1977). It crosses the upper Rio Madeira to its right bank in Rondnia in the region of the Rio Jamar, south of the Rio Ji-paran, forming mixed-species groups there with Mico cf. emiliae (see Vivo 1985; Lopes and Ferrari 1994). Ferrari et al. (1995) also recorded S. f. weddelli (but not Mico cf. emiliae) from the Guajar-Mirim State Park in Rondnia, just north of the Rio Guapor.
Heltne et al. (1976) and Izawa and Bejarano (1981) believed it to be the only tamarin occurring south of the Ro Madre de Dios, although judging from the distribution map supplied by Aquino and Encarnacin (1994) it would seem that the Rio Madidi, south of the Ro Madre de Dios might be the southern limit for the Bearded Emperor Tamarin, S. i. subgrisescens. The southern limit to its range is given by Hershkovitz (1977) as the upper Ro Mamor in Bolivia (about 16S), although he provided no evidence for its occurrence east of the Rio Beni. In Peru, it follows the Andean foothills extending as far south as the upper reaches of such rivers as the Apurimac. Heltne et al. (1976) observed it at Ixiamas, Bolivia (13 46' S, west of the Ro Beni) where it was found to be less common than other primates in the area, and they indicated that this locality may be near to the southern limit of its range.
Saguinus fuscicollis primitivus (Brazil)
Saguinus f. primitivus is known from Pauin, below the mouth of the Rio Pauin on the Rio Purus, and from an unspecified locality on the Rio Juru. Hershkovitz (1977) suggested that the geographic range extends from north (left) bank of the Rio Pauin, along the left (east) bank of the Rio Purus, north to the Rio Tapau (right or south bank). It extends west between the Rios Pauin and Tapau to the right bank of the Rio Juru, and Rio Tarauac (Hershkovitz 1977). Whether Saddleback Tamarins occur on the left (north) bank of the Rio Tapau is not known. Cruz Limas Saddleback Tamarin, S. f. cruzlimai, may occur there or, alternatively, the Rio Tapau may mark the southern limit to the range of S. f. avilapiresi (Hershkovitz 1977).