DistributionRead full entry
Range DescriptionThere are 10 recognized subspecies:
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollis (Brazil, Peru)
Spix’s Saddleback Tamarin occurs to the south of the Rio Solimões in Brazil, between the Rio Javarí in the west, east through the Rio Jutaí basin to the Rio Juruá (left bank) (Hershkovitz 1977, Peres 1993a). Hodun et al. (1981, see also Soini 1990a,b; Aquino and Encarnación 1994) also found it in Peru, west of the Río Yavarí as far as the Río Tapiche, an eastern tributary of the Río Ucayali, and extending north from there as far as the Río Blanco (left or western bank), where it meets the range of S. f. nigrifrons (right, eastern bank of Río Blanco). S. f. illigeri occurs west of the Río Tapiche (left bank), and S. f. fuscicollis is replaced by S. f. nigrifrons again at the headwaters of the Río Tapiche. In the south, it is replaced by S. f. weddelli on the uppermost reaches of the Rios Javarí and Juruá near the frontier with Peru (see Aquino and Encarnación 1994; Peres 1993a; Peres et al. 1996). The altitudinal range is 75–150 m above sea level (Hershkovitz 1977). S. f. fuscicollis is sympatric with Spix’s Moustached Tamarin, S. m. mystax, throughout its geographic distribution.
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus (Brazil, Colombia)
Lesson’s Saddle-back Tamarin is the most northerly known subspecies of the Saddleback Tamarin. It occurs in the lowland forests north of the Rio Solimões, ranging north-west between the Rio Japurá-Caquetá and Içá-Putumayo in Brazil and Colombia (Hershkovitz 1968). In Brazil, the easternmost locality known for S. f. fuscus is the Rio Tonantins, a north bank tributary of the Rio Solimões (Hershkovitz 1977). According to Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976), in Colombia S. f. fuscus also extends north of the middle Río Caquetá, west of the Río Yarí (a northern tributary), through the basin of the Rio Caguán, and lower parts of the Río Orteguaza, west to the Andean foothills to an altitude of 500 m above sea level. It extends north to the right bank of the Río Guayabero and possibly east to the region of around San José de Guaviare on the southern bank of the Río Guaviare, about 1 hour by boat downstream from the confluence of the Ríos Guayabero and Ariari, to the headwaters of the Ríos Vaupés and Apaporis in the southern department of Meta (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976). To the east from there it is replaced by Saguinus inustus (see Defler 1994, 2004). On the upper Río Putumayo it follows the left (north) bank of the Río Sucumbíos (Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1989). Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976, see also Defler 1994) indicated that the form found north of the Río Caquetá, to the region of San José de Guaviare is possibly not S. f. fuscus but a subspecies which has yet to be described. It is not known if S. f. fuscus or some undescribed form of S. fuscicollis occurs between the Riós Apaporis and Caquetá, along the left (east) bank of the Río Yarí (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976). In this region, S. inustus is believed to be limited to the north (left) bank of the Río Apaporis. Regarding the occurrence of S. f. fuscus to the north of the Río Caquetá, it should be noted that Hershkovitz (1977, 1982) restricted its range to the basin of the Río Orteguaza and the right bank of the Río Caguán.
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi (Brazil)
Although based only on its type locality at the mouth of the Lago de Tefé, south bank of the Río Solimões, and a specimen from Ayapuá, left bank of the Rio Purus (Napier 1976), more recent evidence has confirmed the distribution of S. f. avilapiresi proposed by Hershkovitz (1977) as extending along the south of the Rio Solimões between the Rios Juruá and Purus, including the basins of the Rios Urucu and Coarí, and probably the Río Tefé. Johns (1985, 1986) recorded S. f. avilapiresi at his study site on the Lago de Tefé, left bank of the Rio Tefé, although it was very uncommon there, and Peres (1991) recorded the subspecies from Jaraqui, on the right (east) bank of the Rio Juruá. These records confirm the distribution proposed by Hershkovitz (1977). The southern limits are not known but possibly in the region of the north bank of the Rio Tapauá, an affluent of the Rio Purus, but Saddleback Tamarins have not been recorded for this region.
Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai (Brazil?, Peru)?
The distribution of this subspecies is not known with certainty. Through some rather complicated detective work, as well as indications concerning its affinities in pelage colour and patterns, Hershkovitz (1968) concluded that the most likely provenance of this distinct Saddleback Tamarin is the upper Rio Purus in Brazil. Hershkovitz (1968, 1977, p.636) placed it tentatively in the upper Rio Purus region, south of the Rio Tapauá to the Rio Pauiní, both left bank tributaries of the Rio Purus. However, following the discovery of S. f. primitivus, described by Hershkovitz (1977) in an addendum and evidently occupying this region, he placed it, equally tentatively, north of the Rio Tapauá, where no Saddleback Tamarins have recorded to date (Hershkovitz 1977, p. 622). This is to the south of the known geographic range of S. f. avilapiresi, at the headwaters of the Rio Coarí, and the Rio Repartimento, a right bank tributary of the Rio Tefé.
Van Roosmalen (5 August 2003) reported locating S. fuscicollis cruzlimai in the wild, and informed that Hershkovitz (1977) had been correct in believing that it occurred between the Rios Pauiní and Tapauá, west of the Rio Purus. It was observed by T. van Roosmalen on 21 June 2002, on the west bank of the Rio Purus, opposite the mouth of the Rio Sepatini (Van Roosmalen, 16 August, 2003).
Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys (Peru)
This subspecies is confined to north-central Peru, from San Martin, through Huanaco and Pasco to the Río Perene, northern Juno, east to the río Ucayali in Loreto to as far north as the Río Pisqui (Hershkovitz 1977). To the west, it is limited by the Andes, probably not occurring above altitudes of about 900-1,000 m (Hershkovitz 1977). Freese et al. (1982) observed no primate species at Moyobamba, in the upper Mayo Forest Reserve, at an altitude of 1,000 m above sea level. S. fuscicollis occurs in the Panguana Biological Station, on the left (south) bank of the Río Yuyapichis, a tributary of the Río Pachitea, in Department of Pasco, about 150 km south of Pucallpa, in the eastern central part of Peru (9º37'S, 74º56'W) (Hutterer et al. 1995), and is presumably S. f. leucogenys.
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons (Peru)
This subspecies occurs in Peru, between the Ríos Amazonas and Yavarí, and along the right bank of the Río Ucayali as far as the Río Blanco (Hodun et al. 1981; Soini 1990a; Aquino and Encarnación 1994). Upstream of the Río Ucayali along both sides of the river (to the south of the Rio Blanco), it is replaced by Illiger’s Saddleback Tamarin, S. f. illigeri. Strangely, S. f. nigrifrons appears again on the the right (east) bank of the Río Ucayali at the headwaters of the Río Tapiche, a left bank tributary of the Rio Blanco, probably extending east as far as the Río Yavarí, on the border with Brazil. This southern population is based on a specimen collected by R. W. Hendee in the Cerro Azul, Contamana, in 1927 (Hershkovitz 1977). The southern limit is given by Hershkovitz (1977) and Aquino and Encarnación (1994) as the right bank of the Río Ucayali across the river from Pucallpa. There are, therefore, two disjunct populations of S. f. nigrifrons, separated by S. f. illigeri (between the Ríos Ucayali and Tapiche/Blanco), and S. f. fuscicollis which crossed the Río Yavarí from the east to occupy the left bank of the Río Blanco (as far as the mouth of the Río Tapiche) and the right bank of the Río Tapiche (Soini 1990a,b).
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus (Ecuador, Peru)
Saguinus. f. lagonotus occurs between the Ríos Napo and Marañón, west to the Andes in Peru and eastern Ecuador (Hershkovitz 1968, 1977). In Peru, it occurs north of the Río Marañón as far west as the Río Chinchipe along the foothills of the Cordillera del Condor (Aquino and Encarnación 1994). Hodun et al. (1981) confirmed its presence on the left bank of the Río Marañón, and Aquino and Encarnación (1996) recorded it from the right bank of the Rio Napo from Pantoja (frontier with Ecuador) to its confluence with the Rio Amazonas. S. f. lagonotus is in this case sympatric with S. tripartitus between the Ríos Curaray and Napo in Ecuador (see Albúja 1994; Tirira 2007). Thorington (1988) argued that Hershkovitz’s (1977) restriction of S. f. lagonotus to the right bank of the Río Napo is not necessarily valid and that it may extend north of the river, where it would be sympatric with (but not necessarily occurring in the same habitats) as S. tripartitus. For this reason, Thorington (1988) regarded S. tripartitus to be a full species, whereas Hershkovitz (1977) regards it as subspecific to S. fuscicollis. Aquino and Encarnación (1996) were unable to provide any evidence for the presence of S. f. lagonotus on the north (left) bank of the Río Napo in Peru. The only locality where it is known to extend north of the Napo is in Ecuador at La Coca, mouth of the Río Coca, a northern tributary (Hershkovitz 1977). The altitudinal range is from 100 m to approximately 1,200 m in the far west of its range (Hershkovitz 1977). Tirira (2007) gives and altitudinal range of 200 m to 1,160 m above sea level in Ecuador.
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri (Peru)
This subspecies occurs in Peru, between the Ríos Huallaga and Ucayali, south of the Río Marañon (Hershkovitz 1977). S. f. illigeri also extends east of the Río Ucayali, from the mouth of the Río Blanco and along the left bank of the Río Tapiche (Hodun et al. 1981, Soini 1990a,b; Aquino and Encarnación 1994). How far south it occurs, east of the Río Ucayali, is not clearly known, although Hershkovitz (1977) indicated that it is limited to the Ríos Caxiabatay or Pisqui, west of the Río Ucayali, in the region of Contamana. Aquino and Encarnación (1994) indicated that it occurs south to about 6º10'S, north of Hershkovitz’s projection, although in their distribution map (p.108) they extended the range to nearly 9ºS.
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru)
Saguinus f. weddelli has the widest distribution of the S. fuscicollis subspecies. It ranges from southern Peru, from the Río Abujao (east tributary of the Río Ucayali), south along both banks of the Río Ucayali east of the Andes, east of the Río Apurimac, and along the upper reaches of such rivers as the Apurimac, Inambari, Urubamaba and Tambopata, to the Rios Madeira and Beni or Mamoré in Bolivia. It extends north in Brazil between the Rios Purus and Madeira in Acre and Amazonas and part of Rondônia, but is known only as far north as the Rio Pixuna (Hershkovitz 1977). It crosses the upper Rio Madeira to its right bank in Rondônia in the region of the Rio Jamarí, south of the Rio Ji-paraná, forming mixed-species groups there with Mico cf. emiliae (see Vivo 1985; Lopes and Ferrari 1994). Ferrari et al. (1995) also recorded S. f. weddelli (but not Mico cf. emiliae) from the Guajará-Mirim State Park in Rondônia, just north of the Rio Guaporé.
Heltne et al. (1976) and Izawa and Bejarano (1981) believed it to be the only tamarin occurring south of the Río Madre de Dios, although judging from the distribution map supplied by Aquino and Encarnación (1994) it would seem that the Rio Madidi, south of the Río Madre de Dios might be the southern limit for the Bearded Emperor Tamarin, S. i. subgrisescens. The southern limit to its range is given by Hershkovitz (1977) as the upper Río Mamoré in Bolivia (about 16ºS), although he provided no evidence for its occurrence east of the Rio Beni. In Peru, it follows the Andean foothills extending as far south as the upper reaches of such rivers as the Apurimac. Heltne et al. (1976) observed it at Ixiamas, Bolivia (13° 46' S, west of the Río Beni) where it was found to be less common than other primates in the area, and they indicated that this locality may be near to the southern limit of its range.
Saguinus fuscicollis primitivus (Brazil)
Saguinus f. primitivus is known from Pauiní, below the mouth of the Rio Pauiní on the Rio Purus, and from an unspecified locality on the Rio Juruá. Hershkovitz (1977) suggested that the geographic range extends from north (left) bank of the Rio Pauiní, along the left (east) bank of the Rio Purus, north to the Rio Tapauá (right or south bank). It extends west between the Rios Pauiní and Tapauá to the right bank of the Rio Juruá, and Rio Tarauacá (Hershkovitz 1977). Whether Saddleback Tamarins occur on the left (north) bank of the Rio Tapauá is not known. Cruz Lima’s Saddleback Tamarin, S. f. cruzlimai, may occur there or, alternatively, the Rio Tapauá may mark the southern limit to the range of S. f. avilapiresi (Hershkovitz 1977).