In Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, Collared Mongoose has been recorded from the protected areas of Mulu National Park and Pulong Tau National Park, the proposed protected area of Hose Mountains (Brodie et al. in prep.), logged forests in Upper Baram (Mathai et al. 2010ab) and Bintulu division (J. Hon pers. comm. 2014), burnt forests in Upper Baram (Mathai et al. 2010ab) and very occasionally in mixed secondary forest-acacia plantation mosaics (Belden et al. 2007). However, this species seems never to have been recorded from the coastal regions, mangroves or peat swamps of Sarawak (Hon et al. in prep.). In Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this species has been recorded from the protected areas of Kinabalu Park (Wells et al.2005), Crocker Range National Park (from where comes the highest elevational record to date, at 1,400 m asl; J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), Maliau Basin Conservation Area (Brodie and Giordano 2010) and the Ulu Padas Forest Reserve (Brodie in prep.). Most of these records are from lowland and upland primary forests. This species has also been recorded in the sustainably logged forest of Deramakot Forest Reserve (Wilting et al. 2010) and to a lesser extent in the more disturbed forest reserves of Tangkulap and Segaliud Lokan (A. Wilting pers. comm. 2014). In Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) this species has been recorded from scattered but widespread localities including Sanggau, Pontianak, Gunung Palung and Kendawangan, all in West Kalimantan; Kumai in Central Kalimantan; and Balikpapan and Kutai in East Kalimantan (in Medway 1965). Most of these records are from lowland forests. This species has also been recorded from peat swamp forest in Sebangau (Cheyne et al. 2010) and from logged-over secondary forest in the Schwaner Mountains (Samejima and Semiadi 2012), both in Central Kalimantan.
The distribution on Sumatra is less clear. It has even been suggested that this species was perhaps introduced to the island (Veron et al. 2015); the precautionary stance is taken here of considering Sumatra as part of the native range. Two specimens, including the holotype of H. s. uniformis, were collected from West Sumatra adjacent to Gunung Paseman in 1917 (Robinson and Kloss 1919) and Jentink (1894) documented a specimen from Soekadana, South Sumatra. More recently (in 2010), a camera-trap image of the species was recorded in mixed lowland secondary forest with bamboo, in the Harapan Rainforest, Jambi province, east Sumatra (Ross et al. 2012). In 2012, two images of the species were recorded in primary forest in Jantho Wildlife Reserve, central Aceh, north Sumatra (Holden and Meijaard 2012). In 2013, the species was detected in selectively logged (more than 10 years previously) secondary forest in Bukit Tigapuluh Landscape, central Sumatra (P.H. Pratje and A.M. Mobrucker pers. comm. 2014). In Gunung Leuser Landscape, a single camera-trap station photographed the species twice, three weeks apart, at 666 m asl (Pusparini and Sibarani 2014), and in August 2014, this species was video-recorded by camera-trap in Batang Toru, north Sumatra, at 915 m asl (G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015). A further possible record of the species is that of a singleton in a wildlife market in Medan between 1997 and 2001 (Shepherd et al. 2004).
As part of this assessment, a GIS exercise was conducted applying data from the Borneo Carnivore Symposium (June 2011) for which a habitat suitability analysis (incorporating a MaxEnt analysis and a respondent opinion assessment) was conducted (Hon et al. in prep.). This analysis estimated 265,000-315,000 km2 of broadly suitable habitat for the species across its range (roughly 250,000km2in Borneo and between 15,000 and 65,000km2in Sumatra, comprising mainly lowland and upland interior forest). To estimate potential habitat loss, the Miettinen et al.(2011) dataset of land-cover change between 2000 and 2010 was used. This analysis predicted a loss in suitable land-cover classes of roughly 16% in Borneo and ofroughly 35%in Sumatra.The Philippine part of the range (Palawan andBusuanga)was not covered; it is very small compared with Sumatra and Borneo.
Habitat and Ecology
The species use of recently abandoned or current shifting agriculture and oil palm plantations remains unknown, given the low survey effort in them. The full elevational range of records from Borneo extends from 10 m asl (Cheyne et al. 2010) to 1,400 m asl (J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), although it is thought to be more common between 100 and 500 m asl on Malaysian Borneo (J. Ross pers. comm. 2014; J. Mathaipers. comm. 2014); Jennings and Veron (2011) found most records of the few they traced to be at 300600 m asl. In Sumatra, most of the rather few records are from below 300 m asl, frombothprimary and logged forest (e.g., Holden and Meijaard 2012, P.H. Pratje and A.M. Mobrucker pers. comm. 2014), with one each at 666 m asl (Pusparini and Sibarani 2014) and at 915 m asl (G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015). Holden and Meijaard (2012) pointed out that all altitude records on Sumatrathen known to them came from below 300 m asl; if this reflected the species' overall altitudinal distribution on the island, it would make it highly threatened there by ongoing forest clearance. However, the subsequent records at higher altitude indicate that it is not confined to the lowlands. But it does seem to be detectedonly rarelyeven where found (e.g., that in Batang Toru, north Sumatra, was the only record in about 10,000 camera-trap nights; G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015). This suggests the Sumatran population is much smaller than the Bornean population.
There are two colour morphs of the species. The warm-brown morph is the more common of the two on Borneo; in Sabah, it comprised 95% of all Collared Mongoose records in one spatially wide-ranging study (Ross et al. 2012). The few Collared Mongoose records from Sumatra have all been of the orange-red morph (Holden and Meijaard 2012,Pusparini and Sibarani 2014, G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015), suggesting a prevalence of this form on the island; it is not known whether the warm-brown morph even occurs on Sumatra. It is likely that the species has been under-recorded both in Borneo and, particularly, Sumatra because of confusion with the similarly coloured Malay Weasel Mustela nudipes(two of the recent Sumatran records were originally submitted as Malay Weasel; J.W. Duckworth pers comm. 2014)or with Short-tailed Mongoose; this latter means that the warm-brown morph might exist in Sumatra but have been hitherto overlooked. Collared Mongoose is mainly ground-dwelling (Payne et al. 1985). It appears more active during the day when observations peak one to two hours before noon and two to three hours after (Cheyne et al. 2010, Hon et al. in prep.). In Deramakot Forest Reserve, Sabah, the species was recorded mainly during the daytime, dusk and dawn, and - once - at night (Wilting et al. 2010, Azlan M. pers. comm. 2014). It is usually detected as singletons (Davis 1958, Belden et al. 2007, Mathai et al. 2010a) although duos have also been observed (Cheyne et al. 2010, Pusparini and Sibarani 2014, J. Mathaipers. comm. 2014). Its diet includes small animals (Payne et al. 1985) including ants, withgrassalso ingested(Davis 1958). A respondent opinion assessment conducted during the Borneo Carnivore Symposium (June 2011) to assess, among others, tolerance of species to human population, concluded that areas with human population density greater than 70 inhabitants per km2 were not suitable for the species (Hon et al. in prep.). This suggests that unlike Short-tailed Mongoose, Collared Mongoose is not likely to wander into gardens and orchards of villages (and there are indeed few, if any, records from such habitats) and hence, unlikely to be persecuted as a result of direct conflict with humans (Hon et al. in prep.). However, its largely ground-dwelling nature is likely to increase its susceptibility to indiscriminate hunting practices such as nets and snares, which are present in parts of its range (e.g., Mathai et al. 2010a).
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- Data Deficient (DD)
- 1996Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
References[edit source | edit]
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