DistributionRead full entry
Range DescriptionCollared Mongoose is restricted to the islands of Borneo, Sumatra and (dependent upon taxonomic arrangement) the Palawan group in the Philippines. On Borneo, it has been detected in Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo); it is presumed to occur in Brunei Darussalam although no records have been traced. The full elevational range of records from Borneo extends from 10 m asl (Cheyne et al. 2010) to 1,400 m asl (J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), although on Malaysian Borneo, it is thought to be more common between 100 and 500 m asl (J. Ross unpublished data, J. Mathai unpublished data). It has been recorded in a wide range of habitats including primary and logged lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (Wells et al.2005, Wilting et al. 2010), high-elevation forest (Davis 1958, J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), burnt forest (Mathai et al. 2010ab, J. Mathai unpublished data) and occasionally in peat swamp forest (Cheyne et al. 2010) and mixed secondary forest-acacia plantation mosaics (Belden et al. 2007). Records from Sumatra are relatively few; they are from localities spread widely across the island; those with altitudes are mainly from lowland forest below 300 m asl, although there are records at 666 m asl (Pusparini and Sibarani 2014) and at 915 m asl (G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015).
In Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, Collared Mongoose has been recorded from the protected areas of Mulu National Park and Pulong Tau National Park, the proposed protected area of Hose Mountains (Brodie et al. in prep.), logged forests in Upper Baram (Mathai et al. 2010ab) and Bintulu division (J. Hon pers. comm. 2014), burnt forests in Upper Baram (Mathai et al. 2010ab) and very occasionally in mixed secondary forest-acacia plantation mosaics (Belden et al. 2007). However, this species seems never to have been recorded from the coastal regions, mangroves or peat swamps of Sarawak (Hon et al. in prep.). In Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this species has been recorded from the protected areas of Kinabalu Park (Wells et al.2005), Crocker Range National Park (from where comes the highest elevational record to date, at 1,400 m asl; J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), Maliau Basin Conservation Area (Brodie and Giordano 2010) and the Ulu Padas Forest Reserve (Brodie in prep.). Most of these records are from lowland and upland primary forests. This species has also been recorded in the sustainably logged forest of Deramakot Forest Reserve (Wilting et al. 2010) and to a lesser extent in the more disturbed forest reserves of Tangkulap and Segaliud Lokan (A. Wilting pers. comm. 2014). In Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) this species has been recorded from scattered but widespread localities including Sanggau, Pontianak, Gunung Palung and Kendawangan, all in West Kalimantan; Kumai in Central Kalimantan; and Balikpapan and Kutai in East Kalimantan (in Medway 1965). Most of these records are from lowland forests. This species has also been recorded from peat swamp forest in Sebangau (Cheyne et al. 2010) and from logged-over secondary forest in the Schwaner Mountains (Samejima and Semiadi 2012), both in Central Kalimantan.
The distribution on Sumatra is less clear. It has even been suggested that this species was perhaps introduced to the island (Veron et al. 2015); the precautionary stance is taken here of considering Sumatra as part of the native range. Two specimens, including the holotype of H. s. uniformis, were collected from West Sumatra adjacent to Gunung Paseman in 1917 (Robinson and Kloss 1919) and Jentink (1894) documented a specimen from Soekadana, South Sumatra. More recently (in 2010), a camera-trap image of the species was recorded in mixed lowland secondary forest with bamboo, in the Harapan Rainforest, Jambi province, east Sumatra (Ross et al. 2012). In 2012, two images of the species were recorded in primary forest in Jantho Wildlife Reserve, central Aceh, north Sumatra (Holden and Meijaard 2012). In 2013, the species was detected in selectively logged (more than 10 years previously) secondary forest in Bukit Tigapuluh Landscape, central Sumatra (P.H. Pratje and A.M. Mobrucker pers. comm. 2014). In Gunung Leuser Landscape, a single camera-trap station photographed the species twice, three weeks apart, at 666 m asl (Pusparini and Sibarani 2014), and in August 2014, this species was video-recorded by camera-trap in Batang Toru, north Sumatra, at 915 m asl (G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015). A further possible record of the species is that of a singleton in a wildlife market in Medan between 1997 and 2001 (Shepherd et al. 2004).
As part of this assessment, a GIS exercise was conducted applying data from the Borneo Carnivore Symposium (June 2011) for which a habitat suitability analysis (incorporating a MaxEnt analysis and a respondent opinion assessment) was conducted (Hon et al. in prep.). This analysis estimated 265,000-315,000 km2 of broadly suitable habitat for the species across its range (roughly 250,000km2in Borneo and between 15,000 and 65,000km2in Sumatra, comprising mainly lowland and upland interior forest). To estimate potential habitat loss, the Miettinen et al.(2011) dataset of land-cover change between 2000 and 2010 was used. This analysis predicted a loss in suitable land-cover classes of roughly 16% in Borneo and ofroughly 35%in Sumatra.The Philippine part of the range (Palawan andBusuanga)was not covered; it is very small compared with Sumatra and Borneo.