The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Ahl, A. S. 1987. Relationship of Vibrissal Length and Habits in the Sciuridae. Journal of Mammalogy 68:848-853.
  • Alden, P., F. Heath, R. Keen, A. Leventer, W. Zomlefer. 1998. National Audubon society field guide to California. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Boellstorff, D. E., and D. H. Owings. 1995. Home-Range, Population Structure, and Spatial Organization of California Ground-Squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy 76:551-561.
  • Boellstorff, D., D. Owings, M. Penedo, M. Hersek. 1994. Reproductive behaviour and multiple paternity of California ground squirrels. Animal Behaviour, 47(5): 1057-1064.
  • Cato, F. 2003. "San Diego Natural history Museum Field Guide: Spermophilus beecheyi " (On-line). Accessed June 17, 2003 at
  • Edge, E. R. 1931. Seasonal activity and growth in the Douglas Ground Squirrel. Journal of Mammalogy 12:194-200.
  • Evans, F. C. H., and R. Holdenried. 1943. A population study of the Beechey Ground Squirrel in central California. Journal of Mammalogy 24:231-260.
  • Evans, F., R. Holdenried. 1943. A population study of the Beechey ground squirrel in Central California. Journal of Mammalogy, 24(2): 231-260.
  • Fitch, H. S. 1948. Ecology of the California Ground Squirrel on grazing lands. American Midland Naturalist 39:513-596.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Helgen, K. M., F. R. Cole, L. E. Helgen, and D. E. Wilson. 2009. Generic revision in the Holarctic ground squirrel genus Spermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 90, no. 2. 270-305
  • Ingles, L. 1947. Mammals of the Pacific States. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. American Naturalist 157:637-645.
  • Kenagy, G. J., and S. C. Trombulak. 1986. Size and Function of Mammalian Testes in Relation to Body Size. Journal of Mammalogy 67:1-22.
  • Linsdale, J. 1946. The California ground squirrel. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California press.
  • Lovegrove, B. G. 2000. The Zoogeography of Mammalian Basal Metabolic Rate. American Naturalist 156:201-219.
  • MacClintock, D. 1970. Squirrels of North America. New York and Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Meier, P. T. 1983. Relative Brain Size within the North-American Sciuridae. Journal of Mammalogy 64:642-647.
  • Murie, J. O., D. A. Boag, and V. K. Kivett. 1980. Litter Size in Columbian Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus). Journal of Mammalogy 61:237-244.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Owings, D. H., M. Borchet, and R. Virginia. 1977. The behaviour of californai ground squirrels. Animal Behaviour 25:221-230.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Storer, T. I. 1930. Summer and autumn breeding of the California Ground Squirrel. Journal of Mammalogy 11:235-237.
  • Thorington, Richard W., Jr., John L. Koprowski, Michael A. Steele, and James F. Whatton. 2012. Squirrels of the World. vii + 459
  • Tomich, P. Q. 1962. The annual cycle of the Californian ground squirrel, Citellus beecheyi. University of California Publications in Zoology 65:213-281.
  • Waterman, J. M. 1996. Reproductive biology of a tropical, non-hibernating ground squirrel. Journal of Mammalogy 77:134-146.
  • Whitaker, Jr., J. 1980. National Audubon society field guide to North American mammals. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World


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