The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Hall, E. R. 1946. Mammals of Nevada. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Helgen, K. M., F. R. Cole, L. E. Helgen, and D. E. Wilson. 2009. Generic revision in the Holarctic ground squirrel genus Spermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 90, no. 2. 270-305
  • Jenkins, S. H., and B. D. Eshelman. 1984. Spermophilus beldingi. Mammalian Species 221:1-8.
  • Jenkins, S.H. and Eshelman, B.D. 1984. Spermophilus Beldingi. Mammalian Species. The American Society of Mammolgists. No. 221. pgs. 1-8.
  • Leger et al. 1984. Ground Squirrel Vocalizations. Animal Behaviour. Bailliere Tindall, London. Vol 32(3,4). pgs 761-763.
  • Lovegrove, B. G. 2000. The Zoogeography of Mammalian Basal Metabolic Rate. American Naturalist 156:201-219.
  • Macdonald, Dr. D. 1985. Encyclopedia of Mammals. Facts on File, New York. pgs. 624-625.
  • Mace, G. 1979. The Evolutionary Ecology of Small Mammals. University of Sussex.
  • Meier, P. T. 1983. Relative Brain Size within the North-American Sciuridae. Journal of Mammalogy 64:642-647.
  • Michener, G. R. 1985. Chronology of Reproductive Events for Female Richardson Ground- Squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy 66:280-288.
  • Morton, M. L. a. G. J. S. 1975. Reproductive cycle of the Belding ground squirrel (Spermophilus beldingi) seasonal and age differences. Great Basin Nat. 35:4.
  • Morton, M. L., and H. L. Tung. 1971. The relationship of total body lipid to fat depot weight in the Belding ground Squirrel. Journal of Mammalogy 52:839-842.
  • Morton, M. L., and R. J. Palmer. 1975. Body size, organ size, and sex ratios in adult and yearling Belding ground squirrels. Great Basin Naturalist 35:305-309.
  • Murie, J. O., D. A. Boag, and V. K. Kivett. 1980. Litter Size in Columbian Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus). Journal of Mammalogy 61:237-244.
  • Nowak, R.M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkin's University Press, Baltimore. Vol 1. pgs. 570-573.
  • Nunes, S., and K. E. Holekamp. 1996. Mass and fat influence the timing of natal dispersal in Belding's ground squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy 77:807-817.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Promislow, D. E. L., and P. H. Harvey. 1990. Living Fast and Dying Young - a Comparative-Analysis of Life- History Variation among Mammals. Journal of Zoology 220:417-437.
  • Robinson, S. 1980. Antipredator Behaviour and Predator Recognition. Animal Behaviour. Bailliere Tindall, London. Vol 28(3). pgs. 840-852.
  • Ronald Nowak (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Sherman, P.W. 1981. Kinship, Demography, and Belding's Ground Squirrel Nepotism. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Springer International. Vol 8. pgs. 251-259.
  • Sibly, R. M., D. Collett, D. E. L. Promislow, D. J. Peacock, and P. H. Harvey. 1997. Mortality rates of mammals. Journal of Zoology 243:1-12.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Thorington, Richard W., Jr., John L. Koprowski, Michael A. Steele, and James F. Whatton. 2012. Squirrels of the World. vii + 459
  • Waterman, J. M. 1996. Reproductive biology of a tropical, non-hibernating ground squirrel. Journal of Mammalogy 77:134-146.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World


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