Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Nilgiri Marten is endemic to the Western Ghats of India,south of 13N (about Charmad - Kanapadi); 23 localities, most with very recent records, were traced by Sreehari and Nameer (2013).Most of these localities are in protected areas or reserved forests (see 'Conservation'). In recent times it hasalso been photo-documented in tea and other plantation areas adjoining forests, particularly in the Anamalai hills (e.g., Anoop 2013, D. Muddapa pers. comm. 2014).

It has been recorded across a wide range of elevations from 300 to 2,600 m asl (within 100 m of thesummit ofthe highest peak within itsrange; Mudappa 1999, Balakrishnan 2005, Krishna and Karnad 2010, D. Muddapa pers. comm. 2014). Although there has been no formal assessment that accounts for variable search effort across the altitudinal gradient, it appears that thespeciesoccurs mostly inmedium to high elevations of about 800-2,600 m asl (D. Jathanna pers. comm. 2014).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Nilgiri martens (Martes gwatkinsii) are endemic to the western Ghats mountain range of southern India, which is found within the oriental geographic range.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

  • 2012. "Nilgiri Marten" (On-line). The Animal Files.com. Accessed August 17, 2012 at http://www.theanimalfiles.com/mammals/carnivores/marten_nilgiri.html.
  • Balakrishnan, P. 2005. Recent sightings and habitat characteristics of the endemic Nilgiri Marten. Small Carnivore Conservation, 33: 14-16.
  • Gokula, V., N. Ramachandran. 1996. A Record of the Nilgiri Marten Martes gwatkinsi Horsfield in Upper Bhavani. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 93: 82.
  • Hussain, S. 2012. "Nilgiri marten Martes gwatkinsii Horsfield, 1851" (On-line). Mustelids, Viverrids and Herpestids of India: Species Profile and Conservation Status. Accessed August 17, 2012 at http://oldwww.wii.gov.in/envis/envisdec99/nilgirimartin.htm.
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 2012. "Martes gwatkinsii" (On-line). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed August 17, 2012 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/12847/0.
  • John, J. 2002. Hunting Attempt by Nilgiri Marten Martes gwatkinsi Horsfield, family Mustelidae, in Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 99/2: 286.
  • Krishna, C., D. Karnad. 2010. New records of the Nilgiri Marten Martes gwatkinsii in Western Ghats, India. Small Carnivore Conservation, 43: 1-5.
  • Kumara, H. 2006. Impact of local hunting on abundance of large mammals in three protected areas of the Western Ghats, Karnataka. Rufford Maurice Laing Foundation, 1: 2-6.
  • Kumara, H., M. Singh. 2007. Small Carnivores of Karnataka: Distribution and Sight Records. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 104: 155-162.
  • Radhakrishnan, S. 2000. The Wildlife of Kerala. Panchali, 16: 1-4. Accessed August 15, 2012 at http://www.vetcos.com/panchali/pdfs/Article_16_wildlife.pdf.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Nilgiri martens average around 2.1 kg. Their body lengths are anywhere from 55 to 65 cm, with their tail length being anywhere from 40 to 45 cm. As a marten, they have a high basal metabolic rate. Their coat color is brown with a very distinct yellow or orange throat patch. Nilgiri martens are similiar in size and appearance to yellow-throated martens. Nilgiri martens are distinguished by their slightly larger size and by the structure of their skulls. Nilgiri marten braincases are flattened above with a prominent frontal concavity.

Average mass: 2.1 kg.

Range length: 55 to 65 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Nilgiri Marten has been recorded mainly in evergreen forests and montane forest-grassland mosaics, with a few sight-records from moist deciduous forest very close to evergreen forest (Mudappa 1999, Yoganand and Kumar 1999, J. Joshua pers. comm. 2006, Sridhar et al. 2008, D.Mudappapers. comm. 2014), as well as in some altered habitats such as tea, acacia, coffee and cardamom plantations, generally within three kilometres of forest(Schreiber et al. 1989, Yoganand and Kumar 1999, Jathanna 2010, Krishna and Karnad 2010, Anoop 2013).

This species will prey opportunistically on almost any small bird or mammal (Pocock 1941), including Indian Chevrotain Moschiola indica(Christopher and Jayson 1996, Kurup and Joseph 2001, Mudappa 2002), Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Hutton 1949a, V. Ramachandran, pers. comm. 2014),and on Bengal Monitor lizardVaranus bengalensis(Mudappa 1999); it feeds alsoon nectar (Hutton 1944) and probes fallen logs (Kurup and Joseph 2001), probably for invertebrates or reptiles. While sightings in forest areas are rare, local forest-edge communities (local planters along the eastern border of Talacauvery and Padinalknad ReservedForestto the south, the southern border of Pattighat RF and the southern/eastern border of Pushpagiri) usually know this distinctive species well and regularly sight Nilgiri Martens when they raid bee-boxes placed in coffee and cardamom plantations close to forest areas (reportedly to feed on the bee larvae, rather than honey), especially during November-January.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Nilgiri martens occur predominantly in the moist tropical rainforests of southern India at an altitudinal range of 300 to 1200 m. There have been reports of sightings in coffee, cardamom, wattle plantations, swamps, grasslands, deciduous forests, and montane-evergreen forests.

Range elevation: 300 to 1200 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest ; mountains

Wetlands: swamp

Other Habitat Features: agricultural

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Martens are omnivorous. Nilgiri martens are partly frugivorous and insectivorous. They are believed to be good hunters and frequently kill and eat small mammals and birds. There have even been reports of Nilgiri martens hunting chevrotains, monitor lizards, crows, Indian giant squirrels, and cicadas. They have also been known to consume nectar in the form of honey.

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; insects

Plant Foods: fruit

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates, Insectivore ); herbivore (Frugivore ); omnivore

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Mustelids mainly impact their environments through their effects on prey populations. "Given their strong associations with structural complexity in forests, marten and the fisher are often considered as useful barometers of forest health and have been used as ecological indicators, flagship, and umbrella species in different parts of the world, particularly in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia. Thus, efforts to successfully conserve and manage martens and fishers are associated with the ecological fates of other forest dependent species and can greatly influence ecosystem integrity within forests that are increasingly shared among wildlife and humans (Harrison, Fuller and Proulx, 2005)."

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Nilgiri martens have no known natural predators. However, as a small carnivore it could be vulnerable to predation by any larger predators in the area. Large predators in the Western Ghats region of southern India include leopards, sloth bears, dholes, and tigers.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Given Nilgiri martens presumably social nature, they likely communicate both vocally and chemically, through scent marking, similiarly to other martens. They likely use sight, scent, touch, and sound to perceive their environment, although little is currently known about their communication.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

The lifespan of Nilgiri martens is currently unknown. However, a close relative, yellow-throated martens, has been known to live on average 14 years in captivity. Other martens have been known to live on average 10 to 18.1 years in captivity.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
14 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

The reproductive habits of the Nilgiri martens have not been studied. Many mustelids are polygynous, however, yellow-throated martens are known to be monogamous. As Nilgiri martens closest relatives they are presumed to share many biological and behavioral traits; therefore it is likely that Nilgiri martens are also monogamous.

Nilgiri martens reproductive habits have not been exclusively studied. However, we can presume similar reproductive behaviors to close relatives yellow-throated martens and other mustelids. Most mustelids breed seasonally. Yellow-throated martens breed between either February and March or between June and August; Nilgiri martens may follow a similar reproductive schedule. Other species of Martens undergo delayed implantation. Gestation typically lasts 30 to 65 days for mustelids. Gestation periods of yellow-throated martens last between 220 and 290 days. It is unknown whether Nilgiri martena have a similarly long gestation period as yellow-throated martens. Generally, mustelids are altricial, being born small and blind. Information on the growth and development of Nilgiri martens have not been documented. Yellow-throated martens have been recorded to have 2 to 6 kits per litter.

Breeding interval: Most mustelids breed seasonally.

Breeding season: Most mustelid breeding seasons lasts between 3 to 4 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous ; delayed implantation

No information is available regarding the parental investment of Nilgiri martens. Other mustelids are altricial, are weaned at 6 to 8 weeks and receive parental care until about 3 to 4 months.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
D1

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2015

Assessor/s
Mudappa, D., Jathana, D. & Raman, T.R.S.

Reviewer/s
Duckworth, J.W. & Schipper, J.

Contributor/s
Choudhury, A., Wozencraft, C & Yonzon, P.

Justification
Nilgiri Marten is listed as Vulnerable because its global population is plausibly below 1,000 mature individuals. The range, based on maximal extent of plausibly occupied habitat asshown in this account's map,is calculated to be about 24,500 km2. Nilgiri Marten population density is not known, but given the generally very low sighting ratesof this diurnal, distinctive (although there remains evidence of confusion insome claimed sightings with Indian GiantSquirrel Ratufa indica), and generally non-shyspecies, an average very lowdensity is assumed. Assuming that half the calculatedrange isnot occupied at all, and that the other halfsupports varying densities with large proportions of it holding only very low densities, an average ofone animal per 8 km2 is within the bounds of credibility. Thiswould give a population of about 1,500. Assuming that about two-thirds of the pre-breeding population are mature individuals, thissuggests about 1,000mature individuals - the threshold for Vulnerable categorisation undercriterionD1.

It might be close towarranting categorisation asVulnerable alsounder criterion C1. The global population estimate falls comfortably within the threshold under C for Endangered (fewer than 2,500 mature individuals), but it is not plausible that it isshowing a20% decline in 14 years (two generations).Given the levelsof persecution in parts of its rangeit is possible that it isin continuing decline, but it is unlikely that it islosing even 10% per 21 years, the level which would be needed for categorisation asVulnerable. Should there be a change in land-use policy that would cause significant clearance of forest within its range, this conclusion would need to be reviewed.

History
  • Vulnerable (VU)
  • 2000
    Vulnerable (VU)
  • 1996
    Vulnerable (VU)
  • 1994
    Vulnerable (V)
  • 1990
    Indeterminate (I)
  • 1988
    Indeterminate (I)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Nilgiri martens are listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List and is listed under Appendix III under the CITES appendices. "This species is listed as Vulnerable because its entire extent of occurrence is less than 20,000 km², its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat in the six discontinuous national parks where is occurs. In addition, remaining populations are severely fragmented due to a continuing decline in the extent and quality of habitat (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 2012)".

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix iii

State of Michigan List: no special status

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Even despite the recent increase in records and even within well-protected areas,Nilgiri Martensighting rates are startlingly lower than are those of the closely related Yellow-throated Marten Martesflavigula(J.W. Duckworth pers. comm. 2014), suggesting that it might naturally occur at low densities.Nilgiri Martenwas considered rare by Pocock (1941), but during andsince the 1990s it has been seen much more frequently (e.g., 12 sightings in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve between May 1996 and December 1999; Mudappa 2002). There have been many 21st centurysightings across its range (Krishna and Karnad 2010, Sreehari and Nameer 2013), including many as yet unpublished (D. Jathanna pers. comm. 2014, D. Mudappa pers. comm. 2014, from various first-hand observers).While sightings in forest areas remain overallsomewhatrare, local forest-edge communities usually know this distinctive species well andstate that they regularly sight Nilgiri Martens when they raid bee-boxes and when they are treed by domestic dogs.

The population trend is unknown, but given the lack, in recent decades, of strong broad-scale threats such as heavy hunting or habitat loss, it is likely to be relatively stable at present. Hunting was largely an attempt to reduce the loss of bees' boxes (and consequent honey production); a few decadesago, there were even bounties paid for destruction of thespecies, particularly in Kodagu district(D. Jathanna pers. comm. 2014, D. Mudappa pers. comm. 2014). This is no longer the case and persecution levels may have dropped, as certainly have levels of general recreational hunting. In Kodagu, retaliatory killing remains at a high level across the range,andseems unlikely to drop;somebee-keepers report a marked decline in Marten sightings in the 20 years to 2014, although it is not clear that this reflects asignificantdecline in population in this part of its range (D. Jathanna pers. comm. 2014).Thus,while it is plausible that the population in Kodagu is still in hunting-led decline, even this is not certain (D. Jathanna pers. comm. 2014, D. Mudappa pers. comm. 2014), and over the rest of the range it is evidently rebuilding its numbersfollowing the drop in hunting levels. The balance between the two opposing trendsis not clear, but is unlikely to bestrongly downwards, and may even be upwards.

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Although Nilgiri Marten is not often observed, there is a good understanding of general levels and trends in habitat and hunting across its range. On this basis, the only predictable threats are habitat conversion (for large development projects like roads and dams), persecution in retribution for its destruction of bees-box contents (particularly in Kodagu)and, potentially, increase in tourism. After sustained large-scale deforestation within Nilgiri Marten range around a century ago, rates have slowed considerably in recent decades. Large development projects have been destroying some habitat, and fragmenting what remains, at low rates for the last three generations (21 years); these rates are not expected to rise significantly in the next 21 years. With increasingly effective legal protection, hunting currently is not a major issue for the survival of the species in most of its range. This hunting was largely an attempt to reduce the loss of bees-box contents (and consequent honey production); a few decadesago, there were even bounties paid for destruction of thespecies. This is no longer the case and rates have dropped, even in Kodagu in the north of thespecies' range,where (mostly throughshooting with guns)persecutionismost intense(D. Jathanna pers. comm. 2014, D. Mudappa pers. comm. 2014).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Nilgiri Marten is listed in Schedule II part II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, and has been placed onAppendix III of CITES by India.

This species occurs in many protected areasand Reserved Forests (RFs), including (south to north): Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (TR), Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS), Neyyar WLS, Gavi range of Ranni Forest Division (FD), Periyar TR, Srivilliputtur WLS, High Wavy Mountains, Pambadumshola National Park (NP), Palni hills, Eravikulam NP, Anamalai TR - Grass Hills NP, Valparai plateau, Chinnar WLS, Nelliampathy RF, Attapadi RF, Muthikkulam RF, Nilambur South RF, Silent Valley NP, Mukurthi NP - Upper Bhavani, Naduvattam RF-Nilgiris, Brahmagiri WLS, Kerti RF, Padinalknad RF, Talakaveri WLS, Pattighat RF, Pushpagiri WLS, Bisle RF and Charmadi-Kanapadi RF (Hutton 1949a,b; Karanth 1985; Schreiber et al. 1989; Madhusudan 1995; Yoganand and Kumar 1995; Christopher and Jayson 1996; Gokula and Ramachandran 1996; Kurup and Joseph 2001; Mudappa 2001, 2002; Balakrishnan 2005; Kumara and Singh 2007; Mudappa et al. 2007; Krishna and Karnad 2010; Anoop 2013; D. Jathannapers. comm. 2014; H. N. Kumara pers. comm. 2014; N. Jain pers. comm. 2014; M. Balasubramaniam pers. comm. 2014; R. Vijayan pers. comm. 2014; K. J. Varkey pers. comm. 2014; V. Ramachandran pers. comm. 2014; R. Nayak pers. comm. 2014; S. Chirukandoth pers. comm. 2014; G. Mehra pers. comm. 2014; N. A. Naseer pers. comm. 2014; D. Jathanna pers.comm. 2014). There are also records from Sholayar (Vijayan 1979), Parambikulam TR (Sreehari and Nameer 2013) and Vazhachal RF (D. Mudappapers. comm. 2014). These protected areasand reserved forests adequately cover the distributional range of the species andconserveit effectively.

Schreiber et al. (1989) recommended field surveys to locate remaining populations and determine if existing reserves give adequate protection. A systematic survey following thisrecommendation found that although poaching isinfrequent in protected areas, measures to regulate hunting outside these areas are ineffective, especially in lowland forests (Balakrishnan 2005). With the recent number of incidental records clarifying current range, the more important need now is forecological study of the species, particularly to clarify the factors behind the generally lowsighting rate. This would greatly help in planning conservation action for the species, if indeed any is needed.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Nilgiri martens have been reported raiding local bee hives and therefore has been considered a pests by local bee farmers. However, the scarcity of Nilgiri martens leads researchers to believe that the impact on the local honey industry is minimal.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Nilgiri martens have been reported to be hunted for human consumption. However, due to the rarity of the species, it is unlikely that Nilgiri martens are an important food source. It is also unlikely that the fur of Nilgiri martens is valuable, as the fur of its closest relatives, yellow-throated martens, is considered to be of little value.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Nilgiri marten

The Nilgiri marten (Martes gwatkinsii) is the only species of marten found in southern India. It occurs in the hills of the Nilgiris and parts of the Western Ghats.

Description[edit]

The Nilgiri marten is similar to the yellow-throated marten, but is larger and essentially different in the structure of the skull – it has a prominent frontal concavity. It is unmistakable in the field as it is dark above with a bright throat ranging in colour from yellow to orange. which is the deep brown from head to rump, the forequarters being almost reddish.[2][3]

It is about 55 to 65 cm long from head to vent and has a tail of 40 to 45 cm. It weighs about 2.1 kg.[3]

Distribution[edit]

The species is reported from the Nilgiris, parts of southern Kodagu and Travancore Kerala, up to the Charmadi ghats.[4][5][6][7][8][9]

Ecology and behaviour[edit]

Very little is known about the Nilgiri marten. It is diurnal, and though arboreal, descends to the ground occasionally. It is reported to prey on birds, small mammals and insects such as cicadas.[10][11][12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Choudhury, A., Wozencraft, C., Muddapa, D. & Yonzon, P. (2008). Martes gwatkinsii. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 21 March 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable
  2. ^ "The Book Of Indian Animals, S.H.PRATER Bombay Natural History Society, Oxford University Press, 2005". 
  3. ^ a b "Zoological Survey of India, Pune". Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  4. ^ Christopher, G. & Jayson, E.A. (1996) Sightings of Nilgiri marten (Martes gwatkinsii Horsfield) at Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary and Silent Valley National Park, Kerala, India. Small Carnivore Conservation, 15, 3–4.
  5. ^ Madhusudan, M.D. (1995) Sighting of the Nilgiri marten (Martes gwatkinsii) at Eravikulam National Park, Kerala, India. Small Carnivore Conservation, 13, 6–7.
  6. ^ Gokula, V. & Ramachandran, N.K. (1996) A record of the Nilgiri marten (Martes gwatkinsii Horsfield). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc., 93, 82.
  7. ^ Mudappa, D. 1999 Lesser known carnivores of the Western Ghats IN ENVIS Bulletin : Wildlife, Protected areas: Mustelids, Viverrids and Herpestides of India 2(2): 65–70 Publisher: Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun, Editor: S. A. Hussain.
  8. ^ Balakrishnan, P. (2005) Recent sightings and habitat characteristics of the endemic Nilgiri Marten Martes gwatkinsii in Western Ghats, India.
  9. ^ Krishna, K. & Karnad, D. (2010) New records of the Nilgiri marten Martes gwatkinsii in the Western Ghats, India. Small Carnivore Conservation, 43, 23–27.
  10. ^ Hutton, A.F. (1944) Feeding habits of the Nilgiri marten. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc., 48, 374–375
  11. ^ "Nilgiri marten Martes gwatkinsii Horsfield, 1851". Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  12. ^ The book of Indian Animals S.H.Prater, Bombay Natural History Society, Oxford University Press, 2005
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!