The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. UNEP-WCMC database (July, 2002) http://quin.unep-wcmc.org External link.
  • 1996. "Threatened Species; Ursus thibetanus" (On-line). Accessed February 01, 2004 at
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Macdonald, D. (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 2000. "Living In Harmony With Bears" (On-line). Accessed February 12, 2004 at
  • 2004. "Asiatic Black Bears" (On-line). Accessed February 01, 2004 at
  • 2004. "Ecosystem processes" (On-line). Accessed February 11, 2004 at
  • 3. IUCN Red List (July, 2002) External link.
  • 4. Animal Diversity Web (July, 2002) http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.eduaccounts/ursus/u._thibetanus$narrative.htmlhttp://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.eduaccounts/ursus/u._thibetanus$narrative.html External link.
  • 5. IUCN/SSC Bear and Polar Bear Specialist Groups (1998), Asiatic Black Bear Conservation Action Plan (July, 2002) http://www.iucn.orgdbtw-wpd/edocs/1999-004.pdfhttp://www.iucn.orgdbtw-wpd/edocs/1999-004.pdf External link.
  • 6. Burnie, D. [ed.] (2001) Animal. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Chauhan, N. 2003. Human casualties and livestock depredation by black and brown bears in the Indian Himalaya, 1989-98.. Ursus, 14(1): 84-87.
  • Czaplewski, N., T. Vaughan, J. Ryan. 2000. Mammalogy. United States of America: Thomson Learning, Inc..
  • Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (eds.), Mammal Species of the World,Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, 2005.
  • Gittleman, J. L. 1982. The behavioural ecology of carnivores. University of Sussex.
  • Hashimoto, Y., M. Kaji, H. Sawada, S. Takatsuki. 2003. Five-year study on the autumn food habiots of the Asiatic black bear in relation to nut production. Ecological Research, 18: 485-492.
  • Hayashi, S., Y. Yoshida, M. Horiuchi, T. Tsubota, T. Murase, T. Okano, M. Sato, K. Yamamoto. 2002. Analysis of causes of bark stripping by the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). Honyurui Kagaku, 42(1): 35-43.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • International Fund for Animal Welfare, 2003. "Asiatic black bear or Moon bear" (On-line). Accessed March 07, 2004 at
  • Izumiyama, S., T. Yoshida, H. Hayashi, O. Huygens. 2001. Denning Ecology of Two Populations of Asiatic Black Bears in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Mammalia, 65: (4): 417-428.
  • Lekagul, B., J. McNeely. 1988. Mammals of Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Darnsutha Press.
  • Nowak, R. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fifth Edition. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Reid, D., M. Jiang, Q. Teng, Z. Qin, J. Hu. 1991. ECOLOGY OF THE ASIATIC BLACK BEAR URSUS-THIBETANUS IN SICHUAN CHINA. Mammalia, 55(2): 221-237.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Saitoh, T., Y. Ishibashi, H. Kanamori, E. Kitahara. 2001. Genetic status of fragmented populations of the Asian black bear Ursus thibetanus in western Japan. Population Ecology, 43(3): 221-227.
  • Sato, M., T. Tsubota, T. Komatsu, G. Wantanabe, K. Taya, T. Murase, I. Kita, T. Kudo. 2001. Changes in sex steroids, gonadotropins, prolactin, and inhibin in pregnant and nonpregnant Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). Biology of Reproduction, 65(4): 1006-1013.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Than, U., S. Simcharoen, B. Kanchanasakha. 1998. Carnivores of Mainland South East Asia. Bangkok: Siam Tong Kit Printing Co., Ltd..
  • Uni, S., M. Mastsubayashi, E. Ikeda, Y. Suzuki. 2003. Characteristics of a hepatozoonosis in lungs of Japanese black bears. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 65(3): 385-388.
  • Uni, S., Y. Suzuki, M. Harada, I. Kimata, M. Iseki. 1995. Prevalence of nematodes in the Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus, in Central Honshu, Japan, with an amended description of Cercopithifilaria japonica (syn. Dipetalonema (Chenofilaria) japonica). Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 44(5): 371-376.
  • WANG Sung WANG JiaJun and LUO YiNin, MAMMALIAN NAMES(LATIN, CHINESE AND ENGLISH),Beijing:Science Press, 1994.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Yamamoto, K., T. Tsubota, I. Kita. 1998. Observation of sexual behavior of captive Japanese black bears, Ursus tibetanus japonicus. Journal of Reproduction & Development, 44(5): 13-18.
  • Yokohata, Y., O. Fujita, M. Kamiya, T. Fujita, K. Kaneko, M. Ohbayashi. 1990. Parasites from the Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) on Kyushu Island, Japan. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 26(1): 137-138.
  • 汪松, 不详, 1998.
  • 汪松, 中国濒危动物红皮书·兽类,北京:科学出版社, 1998: 1-417.


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