Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The cryptic and elusive Hose's Civet is endemic to Borneo. It has been found in Brunei Darussalam, Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo one record only; photographically validated; Samejima and Semiadi 2012) and Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo). Records suggest it has a highly restricted and patchy distribution within the higher-elevation forests of interior Borneo, with occasional records at lower altitudes (Jennings et al. 2013, Mathai et al. in prep.). It appears to exhibit little habitat plasticity with records mainly in natural forest (e.g., Yasuma 2004; Wells et al. 2005; Mathai et al. 2010a,b; Brodie and Giordano 2010; Matsubayashi et al. 2011) and rarely in logged-over forest (Samejima and Semiadi 2012, J. Mathai pers. comm. 2014); the species' use of recently abandoned or current shifting agriculture and monoculture plantations remains unknown, given the low survey effort in them. The full elevational range of existing records extends from 325 m (Samejima and Semiadi 2012) to 1,700 m a.s.l. (Dinets 2003). Most of the population may occur above 800 m a.s.l., based on the paucity of lower records despite high relevant survey effort there.

In Brunei, the species has been recorded in Ulu Temburung National Park at 450 m and 1,500 m a.s.l. (Francis 2002, Yasuma 2004). This, the largest protected area in the country, comprises lowland, upland and montane forest and is the site of the only live capture anywhere in its world range by 2014 (Yasuma 2004). Brunei remains poorly surveyed and Hoses Civet should not at present be assumed to be restricted in the country to Ulu Temburung National Park.As of mid-2014, the only record from Indonesian Borneo has been from a recently logged (8 years previously) secondary forest in the Schwaner Mountains, Central Kalimantan (Samejima and Semiadi 2012), in 2011 at 325 m a.s.l. which is, as of late 2014, the lowest elevation recordedforthe species.

The species has been recorded from a few localities in Sarawak, mainly in the interior north. The holotype is from Mount Dulit in north-eastern Sarawak, collected in 1891 at 1,200 m a.s.l. (Van Rompaey and Azlan 2004). The largest series of collected specimens - four - was from the Kelabit Highlands in northern Sarawak (Davis 1958). A logging concession in the nearby Upper Baram is one of the few places where the species has been among the most commonly camera-trapped small carnivores (Mathai et al. 2010a,b, in prep.) although many of these detections were from pockets of natural forest within the logging concession. The species has also recently been camera-trapped in Pulong Tau National Park and the proposed protected area of Hose Mountains (Brodie et al. in prep).

In Sabah, the species has been recorded fromseveralprotected areas: Kinabalu Park (Dinets 2003, Wells et al. 2005); Crocker Range National Park (A.J. Hearn pers. comm. 2014); Tawau Hills National Park (A.J. Hearn pers. comm. 2014); and the Maliau Basin-Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (Brodie and Giordano 2010, Matsubayashi et al. 2011). It has also recently been camera-trapped in the Ulu Padas Forest Reserve (Brodie et al. in prep.). Most of these records are from primary forests at elevations between 500 and 1,500 m a.s.l.

As part of this assessment, a GIS exercise applied data from the Borneo Carnivore Symposium (June 2011) for which a habitat suitability analysis (incorporating a MaxEnt analysis and a respondent opinion assessment) was conducted (Mathai et al. in prep.). This analysis estimated about 28,000 km of broadly suitable habitat for Hoses Civet, restricted to the higher-elevation forests of interior Borneo. To estimate the potential habitat loss, the Miettinen (2011) dataset of land-cover change for the years 2000-2010 was used. This analysis estimated that there had beena loss in suitable land-cover classes of 3-7% (1,100 km to 8,300 km) during this period.
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Hose's civets (Diplogale hosei) are native to Borneo. They have primarily been observed in the northwestern hills and mountains of the island in Brunei and Malaysia, in addition to sightings 500 km to the southwest in Indonesia.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

  • Samejia, H., G. Semiadi. 2012. First record of Hose's Civet Diplogale hosei from Indonesia, and records of other carnivores in the Schwaner Mountains, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Small Carnivore Conservation, 46: 1-7.
  • Van Rompaey, H., J. Azlan. 2004. Hose's Civet, Diplogale hosei. Small Carnivore Conservation, 30: 18-19.
  • Wilting, A., J. Fickel. 2012. Phylogenetic relationship of two threatened endemic viverrids from the Sunda islands, Hose's Civet and Sulawesi Civet. Journal of Zoology: 1-7.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Hose's civets are blackish-brown, with a long body and short legs. Its underparts are greyish or yellowish-white. It has long whiskers (over 15 cm long) and semi-webbed paws that have patches of short hair between the pads of their foot; both of these have been suggested as adaptations for foraging along stream and riverbanks and other moist areas. Its nose is very distinctive: the rhinarium is a contrasting color to the rest of the animal, and the protruding nostrils open at the sides of the nose. The tail is very long: while the head-body length is around 50 cm, the tail is often 30 cm or more in length. While variations in color have been noted, it is not known whether this is due to geographical or individual variations.

Range mass: 1.4 to 1.5 kg.

Range length: 76 to 89 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

  • Thomas, O. 1892. On some mammals from Mount Dulit, North Borneo. Proceedings of the General Meetings for Scientific Business of the Zoological Society of London: 221-227. Accessed November 14, 2012 at http://www.archive.org/stream/proceedingsofzoo1892zool#page/222/mode/1up.
  • Yasuma, S. 2004. Observations of a live Hose's Civet Diplogale hosei. Small Carnivore Conservation, 31: 3-5.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The few records of Hoses Civet and the paucity of research on the species render its habitat preference and ecology difficult to characterise. The full elevational range of existing records extends from 325 m (Samejima and Semiadi 2012) to 1,700 m a.s.l. (Dinets 2003) though whether this upper limit of 1,700 m is a real guideline occurrence limit or simply an artefact of search effort patterns remains to be ascertained. Current records suggest that a large proportion of the species may occur at elevations above 800 m. However, Samejima and Semiadi (2012) suggest that in some parts of the speciessrange, such as the Schwaner Mountains in Central Kalimantan, areas below 450 m may be part of its main habitat. Hoses Civet appears to exhibit little habitat plasticity with records mainly in natural forest (e.g., Yasuma 2004; Wells et al. 2005; Mathai et al. 2010a,b; Brodie and Giordano 2010; Matsubayashi et al. 2011) and rarely in logged-over forest (Samejima and Semiadi 2012, J. Mathai pers. comm. 2014). In a logging concession in the Upper Baram, Sarawak, for example, the species has been detected in logged forest (less than 10 years previously) where reduced-impact-logging techniques have been applied; frequency of detection is, however, much lower than in primary forest in the same logging concession (J. Mathai pers. comm. 2014). The speciess use of recently abandoned or current shifting agriculture and monoculture plantations remains unknown, given the low survey effort in them. The species is strictly nocturnal and thought to be primarily solitary and ground-dwelling. Its partly webbed feet and hair between its footpads have been speculated to be adaptations towards foraging among mossy streams and boulders (Payne et al. 1985); recent studies appear to corroborate this with the species'spresence being positively correlated with presence of moss and number of boulders (J. Mathai pers. comm. 2014). Yasuma (2004) speculated that the species dens in holes between rocks and/or tree roots.It is not known what the species eats in the wild. Payne et al. (1985) suggested it forages for small mammals whereas Davis (1958) speculated that it primarily consumes arthropods. Based on captive observations of the single individual ever caught alive, Yasuma (2004) suggested that the species forages on small fish, shrimps, crabs, and frogs near streams, or catches insects and other animals on mossy ground.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Hose's civets are believed to primarily inhabit montane forests between 450 and 1500 m above sea level, with an additional sighting at 287 m. They are mainly a terrestrial species that forages along mossy stream banks, although some specimens have been collected from the forest canopy. The forests they inhabit are mostly mature mixed dipterocarp, but some sightings have been in recently logged areas, possibly indicating that they have some level of resilience to human activity.

Range elevation: 287 to 1800 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

  • Francis, C. 2002. An observation of Hose's Civet in Brunei. Small Carnivore Conservation, 26: 19.
  • Mathai, J., J. Hon, N. Juat, A. Peter, M. Gumal. 2010. Small carnivores in a logging concession in the Upper Baram, Sarawak, Borneo. Small Carnivore Conservation, 42: 1-9.
  • Matsubayashi, H., H. Bernard, A. Ahmad. 2011. Small carnivores of the Imbak Canyon, Sabah, Malaysia, Borneo, including a new locality for Hose's Civet Diplogale hosei. Small Carnivore Conservation, 45: 18-22.
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Trophic Strategy

No definite information about the diet of Hose's civets in the wild is known. The single individual that has been held in captivity ate mostly small fish, as well as chicken and lunchmeat, but refused fruit, rice, and fish that were too large to eat in a single bite or that had large scales or spines. This, along with their likely adaptations for foraging around streams, seems to indicate that fish make up most of their diet, along with other meat. Fruit and other plant matter probably only contributes significantly to their diet when fish or other meat is unavailable. The individual in captivity ate about 100 g of food daily, leaving any excess.

Animal Foods: birds; fish; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates, Piscivore )

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Associations

Very little information exists about the ecosystem roles of Hose's civets. As it seems to live in extremely low densities, it is unlikely that it plays a major role in ecosystem dynamics, or that it is the principal predator, prey, or host of any particular species. As it doesn't seem to eat fruit, it is unlikely that it acts as a seed disperser.

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redators of Hose's civets have not been identified.

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Like other members of the civets, genets, linsangs, and relatives family, Hose's civets have glands for scent-marking; how extensively they use them, however, is unknown. Vocalizations have not been mentioned in any reported live observations.

Communication Channels: visual ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

As the only individual held in captivity was released after 2 and a half months, the lifespan of Hose's civets in captivity or the wild is not known.

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Reproduction

The mating system of Hose's civets is not known due to the elusive nature of the species and the lack of individuals in captivity.

Nothing is known about the reproductive behavior of Hose's civets. Other members of the civets and relative family generally give birth to two litters a year; the closely related banded palm civets are believed to usually give birth to 1 to 2 young, which are born altricial and require an extensive period of time to weaning.

Breeding interval: The breeding interval for Hose's civets is unknown.

Breeding season: The breeding season for Hose's civets is unknown.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

The parental investment of Hose's civets is not known. The closely related banded palm civet gives birth to altricial young that nurse for around 70 days. Even for that somewhat more understood species, little is known about male parental investment.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
C1

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2015

Assessor/s
Mathai, J., Duckworth, J.W., Wilting, A., Hearn, A. & Brodie, J.

Reviewer/s
Schipper, J.

Contributor/s
Hon, J. & Azlan, M.J.

Justification
Hose's Civet is listed as Vulnerable because its population is likely to be lower than 10,000 mature individuals, based on an area of occupancy (AOO) estimated as 28,000 km; the assumption of a very patchy distribution even within this area; an indicative population density of one individual per km (based on studies of similar-sized, largely ground-dwelling civets such as Malay Civet Viverra tangalunga in Borneo; e.g., Coln 2002) in areas considered highly suitable for the species; and the very low detection rates in other areas suggesting overall density to be much below this. It is also estimated that there will be an ongoing populationdeclineof at least 10% over the next three generations (taken as 15 years). This decline is expected because of increased pressure on higher-elevation forests as a result of expansion of logging activities and monoculture plantations to higher elevations, coupled with increase in shifting agriculture and indiscriminate hunting practices using nets and snares as a result of human displacement caused by mega hydro-electric dam projects in the centre of Borneo. The combination of such human-induced activities poses the threat of a highly fragmented landscape through which habitat specialists such as Hoses Civet may be less able to disperse than at present, leading to increasingly isolated populations. Although there are no figures to support this ongoing decline in population size, it is precautionary to acknowledge that these threats will probably take place within the next 15 years, and so to classify the species as Vulnerable.

History
  • Vulnerable (VU)
  • 1996
    Vulnerable (VU)
  • 1994
    Indeterminate (I)
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As they are very elusive animals, the exact status of Hose's civets is uncertain. It is likely, however, that they have been adversely impacted by human activity such as logging throughout their range. Low population densities could make them vulnerable to the region-wide habitat loss and degradation associated with logging and development. Because of this, the IUCN has listed them as Vulnerable. In Sarawak, Malaysia, they are listed as protected.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

  • Schipper, J., M. Hoffmann, J. Duckworth, J. Conroy. 2008. The 2008 IUCN red listings of the world's small carnivores. Small Carnivore Conservation, 39: 29-34.
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Population

Population
There is almost no information on population estimates and breeding status of Hoses Civet. It has rarely been detected; with the increasing number of studies in Borneo using camera-traps, encounter rates remain very low. The paucity of research on the species prevents reliable quantitative estimates. The wide altitudinal spread of records suggest that the species ought to be common in collections; the fact that it is not suggests very strongly that something renders it very localised, very low density, or both. Moreover, the large survey effort by capable researchers using appropriate techniques in areas that seemingly ought to hold the species (forest within the documented altitudinal and geographic range), still yield low encounter rates (if at all), further corroborating the hypothesis of a highly patchy distribution and low density. Unlike other civets, this species is apparently seldom encountered by native hunters. Again, this gives credence to the hypothesis of patchy distribution and low density, although other explanations are possible such as, until recently, local hunters not venturing far from their villages or high into the mountains when hunting.

As part of this assessment, a GIS exercise applying data from the Borneo Carnivore Symposium (June 2011), for which a habitat suitability analysis (incorporating a MaxEnt analysis and a respondent opinion assessment) was conducted (Mathai et al. in prep.), estimated about 28,000 km of broadly suitable habitat for Hoses Civet, restricted to the higher-elevation forests of interior Borneo. Assuming that about two-thirds of the population are mature individuals, this would give a total of roughly 19,000 mature individuals if the population density is taken at 1 individual per km. For a ground-dwelling small carnivore with very low encounter rates, this density is likely to be much at the higher end (see Coln 2002 for a study on the much more frequently encountered Malay Civet Viverra tangalunga in Borneo). Hence, it is likely that the overall density in this 28,000 km area is 0.5 individuals per km (or less), giving a population size of less than 10,000 mature individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Because of the few records of Hoses Civet and the paucity of research on the species, it is difficult to characterise even the current major threats, let alone minor and future ones. Based on the GIS exercise as part of this assessment (see sections on 'Range description' and 'Population' for details of this GIS exercise), it was predicted that between 2000 and 2010, only around 3-7% of forests in potentially suitable land-cover classeswere lost. This indicates that deforestation rates within the Bornean central highlands have been low. Although this may be the case, it is projected that higher-elevation forests will come under increasing pressure from the logging industry because much of the lowland forest has already been logged, and also from the expansion of oil palm plantations to higher elevations facilitated by climatic warming and improved cultivars (Brodie in review). Moreover, the construction of several massive hydro-electric dams in central Borneo will cause the displacement of several thousand indigenous people; this, in turn, is predicted to increase levels of unsustainable and indiscriminate hunting practices such as the use of nets and snares to which many largely ground-dwelling species, plausibly includingHoses Civet, are highly susceptible. Human displacement caused by hydroelectric dams is also projected to increase shifting agriculture at higher elevations and this, coupled with habitat loss through infrastructure development linked to the dams, logging and oil palm expansion, poses the threat of a fragmented landscape through which habitat specialists such as Hoses Civet might be less able to disperse than at present, leading to increasingly isolated populations. Based on a combination of such threats, a decline of more than 10% in the Hoses Civet population is very likely over the next 15 years (approximately three generations).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Hoses Civet is not a CITES-listed species (CITES 2014), presumably because it is unlikely to feature in international trade owing to its rarity and rather plain pelage (Mathai et al. in prep). The species was listed as threatened in the IUCN Action Plan for the Conservation of Mustelids and Viverrids as it was (then) known from only 15 specimens worldwide and there were, at that point, no direct sighting records of a live, wild individual (Schreiber et al. 1989). It is found in some protected areas within its range such as Pulong Tau National Park in Sarawak (Brodie et al. in prep.), Ulu Temburong National Park in Brunei (Yasuma 2004), Kinabalu Park (Dinets 2003, Wells et al. 2005), Crocker Range National Park (A.J. Hearn pers. comm. 2014), Tawau Hills National Park (A.J. Hearn pers. comm. 2014), and the Maliau Basin-Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (Brodie and Giordano 2010, Matsubayashi et al. 2011) in Sabah. However, it is not known how large any of these populations may be or whether any of them are viable populations. Possible strongholds where conservation efforts should arguably be concentrated have been identified (Mathai et al. in prep.) although more research is required to ascertain populationstatusin these areas to verify this. In Malaysian Borneo, the species is listed as Protected under the Sarawak Wild Life Protection Ordinance (1998) and the Sabah Wildlife Conservation Enactment (1997), implying limited protection. However, the species is not listed as a protected animal in Brunei under the Brunei Wild Life Protection Act (1978) nor Indonesian Borneo under the Appendix of the Government of Republic of Indonesia Regulation No. 7 (1999).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Just as there are no known direct economic benefits to humans provided by Hose's civets, there are also no known adverse impacts. It is unlikely that they are an important reservoir of diseases that affect humans, due to their low density and range being limited mostly unpopulated areas.

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There are no known direct economic benefits of Hose's civets, as they are almost unknown to humans and live in an unpopulated area. Other members of the civets, genets, linsangs, and relatives family are hunted or farmed for the secretions of their scent glands, which is a valuable substance in the making of perfumes; however, no record of harvesting Hose's civets for this purpose exists.

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Wikipedia

Hose's palm civet

Hose's palm civet (Diplogale hosei), also known as Hose's civet, is a civet species endemic to the island of Borneo. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable because of an ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last three generations (inferred to be 15 years) and suspected to be more than 30% in the next three generations due to declines in population inferred from habitat destruction and degradation.[2]

Diplogale is a monospecific genus.[1] Hose's palm civet was named after the zoologist Charles Hose by Oldfield Thomas in 1892. Hose collected the first specimen in Sarawak in 1891.[3]

What little is known of the species comes primarily from 17 museum specimens worldwide. Only in 1997, the first living specimen was obtained and released after 2 months – there remains no Hose’s civet in captivity anywhere in the world.[4]

Characteristics[edit]

The upperparts (from nose to tail tip, including outer surfaces of the four limbs) are dark brown to blackish brown and the underparts (from the chin to the tip of the tail and the inner surface of all four limbs) are white or slightly brownish white.[4][5] The face has dark rings around the eyes and very long, white facial whiskers (sensory hairs) and the large, wet snout (rhinarium) has a contrasting flesh colour. The two nostrils protrude widely, diverging to open on both sides.[4] The under surfaces of the feet are pale (flesh coloured) and the footpads are brown. The feet are partly webbed, with patches of short hair between the footpads.[5]

The Hose’s civet has a head-body length of 472–540 millimetres (18.6–21.3 in), a tail of 298–346 millimetres (11.7–13.6 in), a hind foot length of 74–81 millimetres (2.9–3.2 in) and an ear length of 36–39 millimetres (1.4–1.5 in); it is estimated to weigh about 1.4–1.5 kilograms (3.1–3.3 lb) and has 40 teeth.[4][5]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Hose's civet has only been recorded from a few localities in Sarawak and Sabah in Malaysian Borneo, and in Brunei; it has not been recorded from Kalimantan.

There have been very few field sightings of the species, and these have been mainly from lower montane forest and mature mixed dipterocarp forest.[6]

A few recent sightings exist, including a capture in Brunei (which was subsequently released)[4] and a photo taken by a camera trap in lowland forest of Kinabalu National Park in Sabah.[7] Another camera trap picture taken in Kalimantan may represent this species, but has been the subject of controversy.[8]

The highest encounter rate of the species so far has been in the Sela’an-Linau Forest Management Unit (FMU), a logging concession in the Upper Baram, Sarawak, where fourteen images of the Hose's civet were obtained between 2004 and 2005 from four different sites in the concession.[9] The previous largest series of encounters from one locality consisted of four specimens collected between 1945 and 1949 by Tom Harrisson in the nearby Kelabit Highlands,[10] suggesting that this part of Sarawak may be the prime habitat of the species.[11][9]

The few records of Hose’s civet from across its range have been mainly from montane forest sites,[4][5][11][12] giving rise to the assumption that it is a montane species. However, it has been reported from an altitude of only 450m in Brunei[13] and 600 metres (2,000 ft) in Batu Song, Sarawak;[5] an individual was camera trapped in the lowland forest of Mount Kinabalu National Park, Sabah, also at an altitude of only 600 metres (2,000 ft),[7] and one of the 14 images from the Sela’an-Linau FMU was from an altitude of 730 metres (2,400 ft).[11][9]

It may be that the preferred habitat of Hose's civet is highly humid, mossy forests, near mossy boulders and streams.[9]

Ecology and behaviour[edit]

The Hose’s civet is both crepuscular and nocturnal by nature and is thought to be of a more ground dwelling nature than other palm civets.[11][9] It is thought to make dens in holes between rocks and/or tree roots.[4]

Diet[edit]

Little is known about the diet of Hose’s civet in the wild, though it is thought to forage on small fish, shrimps, crabs, frogs and insects[4][10] among mossy boulders and streams. The sole individual ever in captivity ate only meat and fish and not fruit, the preferred diet of all other civets in Borneo.[4]

Threats[edit]

Habitat loss and degradation have been assumed to be major threats to this species.[14] Hose’s civet may be intolerant to disturbance caused by logging, though whether it is able to persist and/or disperse through forest fragmented by slash and burn fields and logging roads is still unknown.[11][9] Hunting could increasingly be a threat to the species as population numbers and trends are completely unknown. It is possible that the species could qualify for a higher threat category once more information is available on its ecology and threats. It is considered urgent to promote and conduct further research on this species.[2]

Conservation[edit]

Currently, the basic factors likely to determine the long-term future of the Hose’s civet, such as population densities, degree of dependency on old-growth forest, ranging and dispersal patterns and others, are entirely unknown, making specific conservation measures impossible.[11][9] No protected area within its range is known to hold a large population,[11] although in Brunei and Sabah, individuals have been recorded in Ulu Temburong National Park and Mount Kinabalu National Park, respectively. In Sarawak, no protected area is known to hold a population of the species. a listing which is completely inferential, based on its highly restricted range and extensive habitat loss (deforestation) and degradation within that range due to logging and conversion to non-forest land uses.[11]

Similar species[edit]

The Hose's civet is similar to the banded palm civet (Hemigalus derbyanus). Hose’s civet was first described as Hemigalus hosei in 1892 by Oldfield Thomas and it was only in 1912 that he found that the difference in shape of muzzle and teeth, as well as the obvious difference in the pattern of colouration, implied the necessity of distinguishing Diplogale from Hemigalus.[6] Like the Hose’s civet, the banded palm civet is strictly nocturnal and more ground dwelling;[11] the distribution of Hose’s civet, however, is much more restricted and more confined to higher altitude forest.

The large snout and long facial whiskers of Hose’s civet is similar to that of the otter civet (Cynogale bennettii). The otter civet is known to be semi-aquatic and has webbed feet; it occurs mainly in lowland rain forest.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 552. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b c Hon, J. and Azlan, M. J. (2008). "Diplogale hosei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  3. ^ a b Thomas, O. (1892). "On some Mammals from Mount Dulit, North Borneo". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 221–227. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Yasuma, S. (2004). "Observations of a live Hose’s Civet Diplogale hosei". Small Carnivore Conservation 31: 3–5. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Payne, J.; Francis, C. M.; and Phillips, K. (1985). A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Sabah Society with World Wildlife Fund Malaysia. 
  6. ^ a b Van Rompaey, H.; Azlan, M. J. (2004). "Hose's Civet, Diplogale hosei". Small Carnivore Conservation 30: 18–19. 
  7. ^ a b Wells, K.; Bium, A.; & Gabin, M. (2005). "Viverrid and herpestid observations by camera and small cage trapping in the lowland rainforests on Borneo including a record of the Hose’s Civet, Diplogale hosei". Small Carnivore Conservation 32: 12–14. 
  8. ^ Chapron, G.; Veron, G. and Jennings, A. P. (2006). "New carnivore species in Borneo may not be new. Conservation News". Oryx 40 (2): 134. doi:10.1017/S0030605306000688. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Mathai, J. (2010). "Hose's Civet: Borneo's mysterious carnivore". Nature Watch 18/4: 2–8. 
  10. ^ a b Davis, D. D. (1958). "Mammals of the Kelabit plateau, northern Sarawak". Fieldiana Zoology 39: 119–147. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.3475. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Mathai, J.; Hon, J.; Juat, N.; Peter, A.; Gumal, M. (2010). "Small carnivores in a logging concession in the Upper Baram, Sarawak, Borneo". Small Carnivore Conservation 42: 1–9. 
  12. ^ Dinets, V. (2003). "Records of small carnivores from Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo". Small Carnivore Conservation 28: 9. 
  13. ^ Francis, C. M. (2002). "An observation of Hose's Civet in Brunei". Small Carnivore Conservation 26: 16. 
  14. ^ Schreiber, A.; Wirth, R.; Riffel, M.; Van Rompaey, H. (1989). Weasels, civets, mongooses, and their relatives: an action plan for the conservation of mustelids and viverrids. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 
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