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Range DescriptionThe cryptic and elusive Hose's Civet is endemic to Borneo. It has been found in Brunei Darussalam, Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo one record only; photographically validated; Samejima and Semiadi 2012) and Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo). Records suggest it has a highly restricted and patchy distribution within the higher-elevation forests of interior Borneo, with occasional records at lower altitudes (Jennings et al. 2013, Mathai et al. in prep.). It appears to exhibit little habitat plasticity with records mainly in natural forest (e.g., Yasuma 2004; Wells et al. 2005; Mathai et al. 2010a,b; Brodie and Giordano 2010; Matsubayashi et al. 2011) and rarely in logged-over forest (Samejima and Semiadi 2012, J. Mathai pers. comm. 2014); the species' use of recently abandoned or current shifting agriculture and monoculture plantations remains unknown, given the low survey effort in them. The full elevational range of existing records extends from 325 m (Samejima and Semiadi 2012) to 1,700 m a.s.l. (Dinets 2003). Most of the population may occur above 800 m a.s.l., based on the paucity of lower records despite high relevant survey effort there.
In Brunei, the species has been recorded in Ulu Temburung National Park at 450 m and 1,500 m a.s.l. (Francis 2002, Yasuma 2004). This, the largest protected area in the country, comprises lowland, upland and montane forest and is the site of the only live capture anywhere in its world range by 2014 (Yasuma 2004). Brunei remains poorly surveyed and Hoses Civet should not at present be assumed to be restricted in the country to Ulu Temburung National Park.As of mid-2014, the only record from Indonesian Borneo has been from a recently logged (8 years previously) secondary forest in the Schwaner Mountains, Central Kalimantan (Samejima and Semiadi 2012), in 2011 at 325 m a.s.l. which is, as of late 2014, the lowest elevation recordedforthe species.
The species has been recorded from a few localities in Sarawak, mainly in the interior north. The holotype is from Mount Dulit in north-eastern Sarawak, collected in 1891 at 1,200 m a.s.l. (Van Rompaey and Azlan 2004). The largest series of collected specimens - four - was from the Kelabit Highlands in northern Sarawak (Davis 1958). A logging concession in the nearby Upper Baram is one of the few places where the species has been among the most commonly camera-trapped small carnivores (Mathai et al. 2010a,b, in prep.) although many of these detections were from pockets of natural forest within the logging concession. The species has also recently been camera-trapped in Pulong Tau National Park and the proposed protected area of Hose Mountains (Brodie et al. in prep).
In Sabah, the species has been recorded fromseveralprotected areas: Kinabalu Park (Dinets 2003, Wells et al. 2005); Crocker Range National Park (A.J. Hearn pers. comm. 2014); Tawau Hills National Park (A.J. Hearn pers. comm. 2014); and the Maliau Basin-Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (Brodie and Giordano 2010, Matsubayashi et al. 2011). It has also recently been camera-trapped in the Ulu Padas Forest Reserve (Brodie et al. in prep.). Most of these records are from primary forests at elevations between 500 and 1,500 m a.s.l.
As part of this assessment, a GIS exercise applied data from the Borneo Carnivore Symposium (June 2011) for which a habitat suitability analysis (incorporating a MaxEnt analysis and a respondent opinion assessment) was conducted (Mathai et al. in prep.). This analysis estimated about 28,000 km of broadly suitable habitat for Hoses Civet, restricted to the higher-elevation forests of interior Borneo. To estimate the potential habitat loss, the Miettinen (2011) dataset of land-cover change for the years 2000-2010 was used. This analysis estimated that there had beena loss in suitable land-cover classes of 3-7% (1,100 km to 8,300 km) during this period.