Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Banded Civet occurs in the Sundaicsubregion: in Peninsular Myanmar (Pocock 1939), Peninsular Thailand (Kitamuraet al. 2010, Chutiponget al. 2014), Malaysia (Peninsular: e.g., Kawanishi and Sunquist 2004, Hedgeset al. 2013; Malaysian Borneo: e.g., Mathaiet al. 2010, Matsubayashiet al. 2011), Indonesia (Mentawai Islands [Sipora Island, South Pagai Island], Kalimantan, Sumatra; e.g., Schreiber et al. 1989, Holden 2006, Samejima and Semiadi 2012)and Brunei (Bennett2014). The northernmost Thai record is from 1253N (Chutipong et al. 2014) and the northernmost in Myanamr is from 1009N (Than Zaw et al. 2008).Several sources list Banded Civet for Vietnam, but no credible evidence of wild occurrence has been traced and it is unlikely to occur there naturally.

There are no recent records in Myanmar (Than Zaw et al. 2008). It has been camera-trapped at several locations in peninsular Thailand (Chutipong et al.2014) and Malaysia (Hedges et al. 2013, S. Mohamad pers. comm. 2014). On Borneo, it is one of the most frequently detected small carnivores in most spot-lighting and camera trap surveys in Sabah, where it has been recorded across the state (Payne et al. 1998, Brodie and Giordano 2011, Ross et al. in prep. a). It is also one of the more frequently detected species in Sarawak (e.g. Mathai 2010). In Kalimantan it has not been recorded in the peat-swamp forests of Sabangau National Park (Cheyne et al. 2010), but it has been detected in peat swamp forest in Berbak National Park, Sumatra (ZSL Indonesia programme pers. comm. 2014). In Sumatra, Holden (2006) detected the species infrequently in lowland primary forest in Kerinci Seblat National Park; however in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park it is found commonly at higher elevations (McCarthy and Fuller 2014, H. Wibisono pers. comm. 2014).

It has been found fromsea-levelup to 1,660 m a.s.l.(WWF-Malaysiapers. comm. 2014).
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Banded palm civets are found in the Oriental biogeographic region, in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and peninsular Burma.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

  • Wilson, D., D. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Hemigalus derbyanus are about the size of small domestic cats, with long slender bodies. This species ranges in length (nose to anus) from 46 to 53 centimeters. They have gray-yellow woolly hair with seven or eight crescent-shaped black markings on the dorsal side and black rings around their tails, which vary from 25 to 38 centimeters in length. Partially retractable claws and powerful feet allow banded palm civets to be very able climbers, and long tapered snouts assist in their feeding habits. They have 40 teeth with a dental pattern 3/3;1/1;4/4;2/2 common to most members of the Viverridae. Their molars are tritubercular. Both males and females of the species possess vestigial anal glands. Underparts of the body are lighter than the dorsal side, and the pelage in the dorsal neck region is reversed and points forward.

Range mass: 1.0 to 3.0 kg.

Range length: 46 to 53 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

  • Kowalczyk, C. 1989. Behavioral observations of the banded palm civet (Hemigalus derbyanus) in captivity. Zoologische Garten, 59 (4): 264-274.
  • Lekagul, B., J. McNeely. 1977. Mammals of Thailand. Kurusapha Ladprao: Association for the Conservation of Wildlife.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Banded Civet has been found at elevations up to 1,660 m (WWF-Malaysia pers. comm. 2014). Most records traced by Jennings et al. (2013) were from below 900 m, although this could simplyreflect low survey effort at higher elevations within most of its range. Where effort has been made in high-elevation areas it hasbeen found to occur commonly well over 900 m. For example, in Crocker Range National Park, Sabah, Malaysia,it was detected at 75% of camera-trap stations and was the second-most frequently recorded civet; camera-traps in this survey were set between 383 and 1,452 m a.s.l. with 66% of them above 900 m a.s.l. (A.J. Hearn, J. Ross and D.W. Macdonald pers. comm. 2015). At high elevations in the Kelabit Highlands, Sarawak and the Ulu Baram, Sarawak, Banded Civet was the most frequently recorded civet; at high elevations in the Ulu Padas, Sabah, it was the most frequently recorded carnivore (J. Brodie et al. pers. comm. 2014). Banded Civet has been recorded in primary forest (e.g., Wells et al. 2005, Chutipong et al. 2014), logged forest (e.g., Brodie and Giordano 2011, Wilting et al. 2010, Mathai et al. 2010, Hedges et al. 2013) and infrequently from oil palm plantations (A.J. Hearn and J. Rosspers. comm.2014; Yue et al. in prep.) and acaciaplantation landscapes(Belden et al. 2007), but abundance is likely to be lower in modified habitat (Brodie et al. 2014a,b). In Sabah it was shown that its proportion of area occupied was greatly affected by the past logging histories and the species was distributedmuch more widelyand was recordedmore often in less disturbed, well managed forest reserves than in forests where conventional logging had caused greater disturbance (Sollmann et al. in prep).

It is nocturnal (Lekagul and McNeely 1977, Ross et al. in prep. b). Davis (1962) found in Borneo that over 90% of its diet was insects, and no analysed stomach contents contained fruit or leaves.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Banded palm civets are partly arboreal and prefer tall forests. They are nocturnal and feed mainly on the ground at night, sleeping in holes in the ground or in trees during the day. Hemigalus derbyanus are also known to forage for prey in trees and near streams.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

  • Burton, J., B. Pearson. 1987. The Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Lexington, MA: Stephen Greene Press.
  • Ducker, G. 1975. Viverrids and Aardwolves. Pp. 144-184 in B Grzimek, ed. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. Volume 12; Mammals III, 1st Edition. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
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Trophic Strategy

Banded palm civets are primarily carnivores, hunting for prey in trees, near streams or on the forest floor. Much of their diet consists of locusts and worms, but they also eat crustaceans, aquatic and terrestrial snails, spiders, ants and frogs. In captivity, the species has been observed to eat fruit, including bananas, but plant consumption is unknown in the wild.

Hemigalus derbyanus catches larger prey by biting it at the back of the neck and then shaking it violently. Their front paws help to grasp the prey while tearing and chewing it, and they swallow with their heads tilted upwards. Often, drinking precedes and follows eating.

Animal Foods: amphibians; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; mollusks; terrestrial worms; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore , Vermivore)

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Associations

Ecosystem roles of Hemigalus derbyanus have not been explored. As small carnivores, they might have some effect on prey populations. Also, as mammals that consume large numbers of insects such as locusts, they might have some positive impact on agriculture by reducing pest numbers.

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The predators of banded palm civets have not been identified.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Banded palm civets observed in captivity have been known to communicate through scent marking, physical interaction and vocalizations. Both defensive and territorial scent marking have been observed in this species. Social behavior includes grooming and pacing, and a keen sense of smell plays a role in identification among individuals. Vocal communication is prevalent in captivity and includes hissing, spitting, cooing, whining and growling.

Communication Channels: tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

Very little is known regarding the lifespan of Hemigalus derbyanus in the wild. In captivity, individuals 11 to 13 years old lacked all teeth, suggesting advanced age.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
13 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
12.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 16 years (captivity) Observations: One wild born female was about 16 years old when she died in captivity, though she could have been older (Richard Weigl 2005). Individuals in captivity aged 11 to 13 years lacked all teeth (Kowalczyk 1989).
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Reproduction

Very little is known about the mating systems of banded palm civets as they tend to be reclusive and have low reproduction success in captivity.

Of banded palm civets observed in captivity, very few have given birth, thus there is a small sample size from which to generalize. The females' estrus cycle is not easily identifiable, but scientists hypothesize that they may be seasonally polyestrus or generally polyestrus throughout the year with a 4 to 7 day cycle. Banded palm civets in captivity do not construct nests and give birth to 1 or 2 young, which weigh about 125 grams. They open their eyes after 8 to 12 days and nurse for about 70 days before eating solid food. In the family Viverridae, of which Hemigalus derbyanus is a member, there are generally two litters per year, one in the spring and one in the fall. The gestation period ranges from 32 to 64 days among all of the species of this family.

Breeding interval: The breeding interval of banded palm civets is unknown.

Breeding season: The breeding season is unknown.

Average number of offspring: 1 to 2.

Average weaning age: 70 days.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 125 g.

Average number of offspring: 2.

Although little is known regarding the mating habits of banded palm civets, the relatively long nursing period of the female (about 70 days) suggests that large amounts of energy are required and thus feeding must increase during the pregnancy and following the birth of her young. Male contribution is unknown.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2015

Assessor/s
Ross, J., Brodie, J., Cheyne, S., Chutipong, W., Hedges, L., Hearn, A., Linkie, M., Loken, B., Mathai, J., McCarthy, J., Ngoprasert, D., Tantipisanuh, N., Wilting, A. & Haidir, I.A.

Reviewer/s
Duckworth, J.W. & Schipper, J.

Contributor/s
Azlan J., M., Duckworth, J.W., Hon, J., Shepherd, C. & Than Zaw

Justification
Banded Civet has a large geographic range that includes Borneo, Sumatra (including the Mentawai Islands), Peninsular Malaysia, Peninsular Thailand and Peninsular Myanmar. Across its distribution it occurs over a wide elevation range. Camera-trap surveys, particularly in Malaysian Borneo and Sumatra, have recorded Banded Civet frequently relative to other carnivores. They indicate that it is forest dependent, but can tolerate some habitat disturbance, although there is no evidence that it can survive in agricultural plantations. Continuing loss of natural forest throughout its range makes it reasonable to assume that its population is in decline. The decline rate, driven by loss of habitat compounded by hunting, is difficult to assess and possibly varies much within its range, but it is unlikely that overall it is exceeding 30% (the threshold for Vulnerable) over three generations (taken as 15 years; Pacifici et al. 2013). It is assumed to be more likely to be around 25%, thereby qualifying the species for Near Threatened (nearly meets criteria A2, A3 and A4).

History
  • 2008
    Vulnerable (VU)
  • 1996
    Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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This species is not listed as threatened or endangered on any official sites, but recent research suggests that banded palm civets are increasingly rare in their native habitats and decreasing in numbers due to deforestation and habitat loss.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix ii

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

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Population

Population
Holden (2006) speculated thatBanded Civetmight typically be rare where it is found. However, Payne et al. (1998) stated that it was the second-most commonly recorded civet in the forests of Sabah and more recent surveys suggest that it is still relatively common in many areas across the state (Ross et al. in prep. a). All evidence suggests that it is forest dependent and so the population is likely to be in decline. Although it has been detected in logged forest (Ross et al. in prep. a) it is likely to occur at lower densities in these areas (Brodie et al. 2014a,b).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat loss and degradation have been assumed to be major threats to Banded Civet (Schreiber et al. 1989). Reduction in primary forest has proceeded very fast throughout the lowland Sundaic region in the last 20 years, particularly at lower elevations (e.g. Holmes 2000,BirdLife International 2001,Jepson et al. 2001, McMorrow and Talip 2001, Lambert and Collar 2002,Kinnairdet al. 2003,Curran et al. 2004, Fuller 2004, Eames et al. 2005, Stibig et al. 2014). This will have caused population declines. Local occurrence of Banded Civet in Borneo is lower in logged areas than in unlogged areas (Brodie et al. 2014a,b). The Mentawai populations are impacted by economic development as human settlements expand into civet habitat, which also may result in conflicts since this species will prey on domestic livestock such as chickens (Schreiber et al. 1989). Hunting, often for trade, also threaten this species. Because Banded Civet spends a lot of time on the ground, it is exposed to snares and other traps. The species is hunted for food by some people in Sabah (Murphy 2007). Banded Civet has recently been recorded in the pet trade in Indonesia and is sometimes captured, possibly opportunistically, for display in zoos and wild animal collections (C.R. Shepherd pers. comm. 2014).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Banded Civet is listed on CITES Appendix II; additionally, it is protected by national law in Malaysia and Thailand. The Mentawai subspecies were listed as Threatened in the IUCN Action Plan for the Conservation of Mustelids and Viverrids (Schreiber et al. 1989). The species has been recorded in many protected areas across its range (Chutipong et al. 2014, Ross et al. in prep. a, WWF-Malaysia pers. comm. 2014).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Information on the negative impact of Hemigalus derbyanus is not available.

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The economic importance of banded palm civets is relatively insignificant, although some members of the Viverridae family are trapped or bred in captivity to procure their civet, a potent fluid obtained from the anal glands which is often used in perfumes.

Positive Impacts: body parts are source of valuable material

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Wikipedia

Banded palm civet

The banded palm civet (Hemigalus derbyanus), also called the banded civet, is a civet found in the Sundaic region and occurs in peninsular Myanmar, peninsular Malaysia, peninsular Thailand and in Indonesia on the islands of Sipura, Sumatra and Borneo. It is listed as Vulnerable because of an ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last three generations, inferred from over-exploitation, decline in habitat quality, and habitat destruction and degradation.[2]

Hemigalus is a monospecific genus that was first named and described by the French zoologist Claude Jourdan in 1837.[3][4]

Characteristics[edit]

Banded palm civet nose, paws, scent glands and genitalia, as illustrated in Pocock's The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma - Mammalia Vol 1[3]

Having roughly the size of a domestic cat, this species of viverrid measures from 41 to 51 cm in total length, and weights from 1 to 3 kg (2.2 to 6.6 lbs).[5]

The banded palm civet has a long pointed face, reminiscent of insectivorous mammals. It has a long body set on short legs, and five toes on each foot with retractable claws. It looks very similar to Owston's palm civet (Chrotogale owstoni), except that it lacks spots on its body, and the hair on its neck points upwards instead of down along the neck. It is also similar to the rare Hose's palm civet (Diplogale hosei), an endemic of northern Borneo - they only differ in shape of muzzle and teeth and Hose's civet does not have the banded pelage of the Banded Civet. Banded Civet has short, dense fur that is generally a dark cream/buff color with four to five dark bands on its back. Its tail has two dark bands and the latter half of the tail is dark brown to black. There is a dark brown stripe that extends down the length of the top of the muzzle, and two stripes that extend from the top middle of the eye to the inside corner of the ears. There are two areas of white above and below each eye, and the muzzle is darker than the rest of the face.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Though it lives in the forests, it spends much of its time on the ground.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b Hon, J., Azlan, M. J. and Duckworth, J. W. (2008). "Hemigalus derbyanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  3. ^ a b Pocock, R. I. (1939). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. Taylor and Francis, London. Pp. 452–458.
  4. ^ Jourdan, C. (1837). Mémoire sur deux mammifères nouveaux de l'Inde, considérés comme types des deux genres voisins des Paradoxures, genres Hémigale et Ambliodon. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences: 442–447.
  5. ^ [1] arkive.org
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