Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>

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Distribution

 
latitude min
  • latitude
    The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are north of the Equator, negative values are south of it. Legal values lie between -90 and 90, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude
Additional detail
63.1 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
latitude max
  • latitude
    The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are north of the Equator, negative values are south of it. Legal values lie between -90 and 90, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude
Additional detail
78 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
longitude min
  • longitude
    The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are east of the Greenwich Meridian, negative values are west of it. Legal values lie between -180 and 180, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude
Additional detail
-94.9 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
longitude max
  • longitude
    The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are east of the Greenwich Meridian, negative values are west of it. Legal values lie between -180 and 180, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude
Additional detail
17 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
geographic distribution includes
Additional detail
European waters (ERMS scope)
World Register of Marine Species  
Additional detail
high Arctic
  • high Arctic
    Zones A, B and C, per the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM Team 2003)
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/highArctic
Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail
low Arctic
  • low Arctic
    Zone D, per the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM Team 2003)
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/lowArctic
Arctic Biodiversity  
Additional detail
North West Atlantic
World Register of Marine Species  
Additional detail
Spitsbergen
World Register of Marine Species  

Physical Description

 
body length (VT) average
Additional detail
1,992.55 mm adult
PanTHERIA  
 
body mass average
Additional detail
371,703.81 g adult
PanTHERIA  
Additional detail
670.48 g newborn animal
PanTHERIA  
Additional detail
8,500 g weanling
PanTHERIA  
 
teat number average
Additional detail
4
PanTHERIA  
 
weight
Additional detail
475,000 g adult
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail
665 g neonate stage
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail
27,000 g weanling
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Ecology

 
trophic level
Additional detail
omnivore
  • omnivore
    organism consuming a variety of foods, usually including both plants and animals
    http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q164509
MammalDiet  
Additional detail
omnivore
  • omnivore
    An animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals.
    http://www.owl-ontologies.com/unnamed.owl#Omnivore
PanTHERIA  
 
habitat
Additional detail
archipelago
  • archipelago
    A group of geographically or geologically associated islands.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000220
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coast
  • coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coast
  • coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coast
  • coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coast
  • coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coast
  • coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
cold temperature habitat
  • cold temperature habitat
    A biome characterized by an average temperature of 15deg C or lower. Inhabited by psychrophilic (cryophilic) organisms.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002026
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
continental shelf
  • continental shelf
    The extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow sea.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000223
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
drainage basin
  • drainage basin
    A regions or area bounded by drainage divides and occupied by a drainage system; specifically the tract of country that gathers water originating as precipitation and contributes it to a particular stream channel or system of channels, or to a lake, reservoir, or other body of water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000291
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
ice sheet
  • ice sheet
    A mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000132
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
ice sheet
  • ice sheet
    A mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000132
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
iceberg
  • iceberg
    A large mass of detached land ice in the sea or stranded in shallow water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000298
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
island
  • island
    Area of dry or relatively dry land surrounded by water or low wetland.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000098
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
island
  • island
    Area of dry or relatively dry land surrounded by water or low wetland.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000098
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
marine biome
  • marine biome
    An aquatic biome that comprises systems of open-ocean and unprotected coastal habitats, characterized by exposure to wave action, tidal fluctuation, and ocean currents as well as systems that largely resemble these. Water in the marine biome is generally within the salinity range of seawater: 30 to 38 ppt.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000447
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
marine habitat
  • marine habitat
    A habitat that is in or on a sea or ocean containing high concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids (typically >35 grams dissolved salts per litre).
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000569
IUCN  
Additional detail
ocean
  • ocean
    Continuous saline-water bodies that surround the continents and fill the Earth's great depressions.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000015
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
polynya
  • polynya
    Any enclosed water area in pack ice other than a lead, not large enough to be called open water. When frozen over, a polyna becomes an ice skylight from the point of view of the submariner.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000484
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
saline water
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sea
  • sea
    A large expanse of saline water usually connected with an ocean.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000016
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sea
  • sea
    A large expanse of saline water usually connected with an ocean.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000016
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sea ice
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
shore
  • shore
    That part of the land in immediate contact with a body of water including the area between high and low water lines.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000304
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
shoreline
  • shoreline
    The line of contact between a body of water and the land.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000486
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
terrestrial biome
  • terrestrial biome
    A biome that applies to the terrestrial realm.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000446
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
terrestrial habitat
  • terrestrial habitat
    A habitat that is on or at the boundary of the surface of the Earth.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002009
IUCN  
Additional detail
tundra
  • tundra
    Treeless, level, or gently rolling plains characteristic of arctic or subarctic regions, having a permanently frozen subsoil, and usually supporting low growing vegetation such as lichens, mosses, and stunted shrubs.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000112
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
upwelling
  • upwelling
    An oceanographic feature that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-deplete surface water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000005
Environments - EOL project  
 
primary diet
Additional detail
animals
MammalDiet  
Additional detail
mammals
See original source  
  • source missing
Additional detail
mammals
MammalDiet  
Additional detail
vertebrates
MammalDiet  
 
interacts with
  • interacts with
    an organism has an effect on another organism in the community.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/interactsWith
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
 
feeds on
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
 
has predator
  • has predator
    is consumed for energetic or other nutritional needs (by another organism)
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/HasPredator
Additional detail GloBI  
 
habitat breadth
Additional detail
1
PanTHERIA  
 
diet breadth
Additional detail
3
PanTHERIA  
 
water nitrate concentration min
Additional detail
0.7 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water nitrate concentration max
Additional detail
2.39 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water temperature min
Additional detail
0.3 degrees Celsius
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water temperature max
Additional detail
0.75 degrees Celsius
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water silicate concentration min
Additional detail
1.93 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water silicate concentration max
Additional detail
4.63 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water phosphate concentration min
Additional detail
0.53 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water phosphate concentration max
Additional detail
0.58 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water dissolved O2 concentration min
Additional detail
7.93 mL/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water dissolved O2 concentration max
Additional detail
8.11 mL/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water O2 saturation min
Additional detail
97.39 percent
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water O2 saturation max
Additional detail
103.42 percent
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water salinity min
Additional detail
32.12 PSU
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water salinity max
Additional detail
32.92 PSU
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
diet includes
Additional detail
fish
  • fish
    A member of one of the basal lineages of craniate animals that lack limbs with digits, including hagfish, lampreys, cartilaginous and bony fishes.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fish
MammalDiet  
Additional detail
fruit
  • fruit
    A multi-tissue plant structure (PO:0025496) that develops from a gynoecium (PO:0009062) and may have as parts one or more seeds (PO:0009010).
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PO_0009001
See original source  
  • source missing
Additional detail
fruit
  • fruit
    A multi-tissue plant structure (PO:0025496) that develops from a gynoecium (PO:0009062) and may have as parts one or more seeds (PO:0009010).
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PO_0009001
MammalDiet  
Additional detail
plants
MammalDiet  

Life History and Behavior

 
home range average
Additional detail
77,270.47 km²
PanTHERIA  
Additional detail
82,990.48 km²
PanTHERIA  
 
clutch/brood/litter size average
Additional detail
1.66
PanTHERIA  
 
clutch/brood/litter size
Additional detail
2
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
behavioral circadian rhythm
Additional detail
diurnal
PanTHERIA  
 
onset of fertility
Additional detail
1,734 days female
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail
1,734 days male
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
onset of fertility average
Additional detail
1,850.26 days
PanTHERIA  
 
age at first birth average
Additional detail
1,825 days female
PanTHERIA  
 
dispersal age average
Additional detail
820.99 days
PanTHERIA  
 
gestation period duration average
Additional detail
64.66 days
PanTHERIA  
 
inter-birth interval average
Additional detail
831.67 days female
PanTHERIA  
 
inter-birth interval
Additional detail
750 days
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
litters per year median
Additional detail
0.72
PanTHERIA  
 
litters per year
Additional detail
0.4 per year
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
total life span max
Additional detail
43.8 years
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail
458.4 months
PanTHERIA  
 
age at eye opening average
Additional detail
34.12 days
PanTHERIA  
 
population group size average
Additional detail
1
PanTHERIA  
 
terrestriality
Additional detail
fossorial and/or ground dwelling only
  • fossorial and/or ground dwelling only
    An organism that spends most of its time on the ground or underground.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/groundDwelling
PanTHERIA  
 
weaning age average
Additional detail
205.17 days
PanTHERIA  
 
weaning age
Additional detail
303 days
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
growth rate
Additional detail
0.0022 per day
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
prenatal development duration
  • prenatal development duration
    The duration of the development from fertilized, deposited or implanted egg to hatching/birth. Corresponds to egg incubation duration in oviparous animals and to gestation period duration in viviparous animals.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrenatalDevelopmentDuration
Additional detail
65 days
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Evolution and Systematics

 
first appearance (older bound)
Additional detail
0.13 million years ago
The Paleobiology Database  
 
first appearance (younger bound)
Additional detail
0.0117 million years ago
The Paleobiology Database  
 
last appearance (older bound)
Additional detail
0.0117 million years ago
The Paleobiology Database  
 
last appearance (younger bound)
Additional detail
0 million years ago
The Paleobiology Database  

Physiology and Cell Biology

 
metabolic rate average
Additional detail
44,346 mL/hr O2
PanTHERIA  
 
body temperature
  • body temperature
    The degree of heat in the body of a living organism, temperature is measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter, expressed in terms of units or degrees designated on a standard scale.
    http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/CSP/2871-4249
Additional detail
309.95 kelvin
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Conservation

 
population trend
Additional detail
Decreasing
IUCN  
 
animal population density average
Additional detail
0.00705 individuals per square kilometer
PanTHERIA  
 
conservation status
Additional detail
vulnerable
  • vulnerable
    A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable, and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/vulnerable
IUCN