The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. The Mammal Society. Mammal fact sheets (November 2002) http://www.abdn.ac.ukmammal/red_deer.shtmlhttp://www.abdn.ac.ukmammal/red_deer.shtml External link.
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  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Mammals Trust UK (November 2002) http://www.mtuk.org/http://www.mtuk.org/ External link.
  • 3. British Deer Society. Red Deer Fact Sheet (November 2002) http://www.britishdeersociety.co.uk/downloads/red.pdfhttp://www.britishdeersociety.co.uk/downloads/red.pdf External link.
  • 4. Macdonald, D.W. and Tattersall, F.T. (2001) Britain's mammals- the challenge for conservation. The Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Oxford University. Available from http://www.wildcru.orghttp://www.wildcru.org External link.
  • 5. Putman, R. (1988) The Natural History of Deer. Christopher Helm, London.
  • 6. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (November 2002) http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/ External link.
  • 7. UK Biodiversity. Species of Conservation Concern (November 2002) http://www.ukbap.org.ukLibrary/SOCC6.XLShttp://www.ukbap.org.ukLibrary/SOCC6.XLS External link.
  • 8. The Bern Convention (November 2002) http://www.nature.coe.intenglish/cadres/bern.htmhttp://www.nature.coe.intenglish/cadres/bern.htm External link.
  • 9. The Deer Act 1991. DEFRA (November 2002) http://www.defra.gov.ukpaw/publications/law/4_1_14.htmhttp://www.defra.gov.ukpaw/publications/law/4_1_14.htm External link.
  • Baker, R. H. 1983. Michigan Mammals. Michigan State University Press. East Lansing, MI. 566-577.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Bannikov, A. 1978. The present status of the Bactrian deer (Cervus elaphus bactrianus).in L. N. Oxford, editor. Threatened Deer. Proceedings of a Working Meeting of the Deer Specialist Group of the Survival Service Commission.
  • Bauer, E. A. 1995. Elk. Voyageur Press, Stillwater.
  • Burton, J. A., and B. Pearson. 1987. Rare Mammals of the World, WIlliam Collins Sons & Co. ltd.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Chen P-W; Stokes AG; McKittrick J. 2009. Comparison of the structure and mechanical properties of bovine femur bone and antler of the North American elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis). Acta Biomaterialia. 5: 693-706.
  • Cockerill, R. A., and V. Geist. 2001. Deer Species. Pages 512-513 in D. MacDonald, editor. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • De, M. 1998. Husbandry and breeding of North American Ungulates at Burnet Park Zoo, Syracuse, and Thompson Park Conservancy, Watertown. International Zoo Yearbook 36:234-246.
  • Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (eds.), Mammal Species of the World,Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, 2005.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Hudson, R. J., and L. A. Renecker. 1993. Morphology, Bioenergetics and Resource Use: Patterns and Processes. Pages 141-163 in J. B. Stelfox and B. J. Stelfox, editors. Hoofed Mammals of Alberta. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton and Vancouver.
  • INPN 2003-2014. Fiche descriptive de : Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Service du Patrimoine naturel. http://inpn.mnhn.fr/espece/cd_nom/61000/tab/fiche.
  • Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. American Naturalist 157:637-645.
  • Kenagy, G. J., and S. C. Trombulak. 1986. Size and Function of Mammalian Testes in Relation to Body Size. Journal of Mammalogy 67:1-22.
  • Kiltie, R. A. 1982. Intraspecific Variation in the Mammalian Gestation Period. Journal of Mammalogy 63:646-652.
  • Kulin RM; Chen P-Y; Jiang F; McKittrick J; Vecchio KS. 2010. Dynamic fracture resilience of elk antler: biomimetic inspiration for improved crashworthiness. JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society. 62(1): 41-46.
  • Kurta, A. 1995. Mammals of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. 261-264.
  • Landete-Castillejos T; Currey JD; Estevez JA; Gaspar-López E; Garcia A; Gallego L. 2007. Influence of physiological effort of growth and chemical composition on antler bone mechanical properties. Bone. 41: 794-803.
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • Linnaeus, C., Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis,Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, 17581.
  • Ludt, C. J., W. Schroeder , O. Rottmann, and R. Kuehn. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of red deer (Cervus elaphus). Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution 31(3):1064-1083.
  • Muñoz-Pedreros A & J Yáñez (2000) Mamíferos de Chile. CEA Ediciones, Chile. 463 p.
  • Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. 1207-1212.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Polziehn , R. O. and C. Strobeck. 2002. A phylogenetic comparison of red deer and wapiti using mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution 22:342–356.
  • Promislow, D. E. L., and P. H. Harvey. 1990. Living Fast and Dying Young - a Comparative-Analysis of Life- History Variation among Mammals. Journal of Zoology 220:417-437.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • SORDELLO R. (2012). Synthèse bibliographique sur les traits de vie du Cerf élaphe (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) relatifs à ses déplacements et à ses besoins de continuités écologiques. Service du patrimoine naturel du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle. Paris. 20 pages.
  • Sadleir, R. M. F. S. 1987. Reproduction of female cervids. Pages 123-144 in C. M. Wemmer, editor. Biology and Management of the Cervidae. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C, London.
  • Shuker, KPN. 2001. The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature. London: Marshall Editions Ltd. 240 p.
  • Sibly, R. M., D. Collett, D. E. L. Promislow, D. J. Peacock, and P. H. Harvey. 1997. Mortality rates of mammals. Journal of Zoology 243:1-12.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Stelfox, J. B., and J. G. Stelfox. 1993. Population Dynamics and Reproduction. Pages 63-68 in J. B. Stelfox, editor. Hoofed Mammals of Alberta. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton and Vancouver.
  • Steven Vogel. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 580 p.
  • WANG Sung WANG JiaJun and LUO YiNin, MAMMALIAN NAMES(LATIN, CHINESE AND ENGLISH),Beijing:Science Press, 1994.
  • WANG Sung, CHINA RED DATA BOOK OF ENDANGERED ANIMALES - MAMMALIA,CHINA RED DATA BOOK OF ENDANGERED ANIMALES - MAMMALIA, 1998.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Whitehead, G. K. 1972. Deer of the World. Constable and Company Ltd, London, UK.
  • Whitehead, G. K. 1993. The Whitehead Encyclopedia of Deer. Swan Hill Press, Shrewsbury.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Zioupos P; Wang XT; Currey JD. 1996. Experimental and theoretical quantification of the development of damage in a fatigue tests of bone and antler. Journal of Biomechanics. 29(8): 989-1002.
  • 汪松, 不详, 1998.
  • 汪松, 中国濒危动物红皮书·兽类,北京:科学出版社, 1998: 1-417.

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