The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (September, 2005) http://www.redlist.orghttp://www.redlist.org External link.
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Macdonald, D. (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 2001. "Asiatic Lion Information Center" (On-line). Accessed February 09, 2004 at http://www.asiatic-lion.org.
  • 3. CITES (September, 2005) http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/species.htmlhttp://www.cites.org/eng/resources/species.html External link.
  • 4. IUCN Cat Specialist Group (September, 2005) http://www.catsg.orghttp://www.catsg.org External link.
  • 5. Big Cats Online (September, 2005) http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/plaza/abf90/bco/lion.htmhttp://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/plaza/abf90/bco/lion.htm External link.
  • 6. Lioncrusher's Domain (September, 2005) http://www.lioncrusher.com/animal.asp?animal=59http://www.lioncrusher.com/animal.asp?animal=59 External link.
  • 7. Animal Diversity Web (September, 2005) http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Panthera_leo.htmlhttp://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Panthera_leo.html External link.
  • 8. Jackson, P. (2006) Pers. Comm.
  • 9. The Cat Survival Trust (September, 2005) http://hometown.aol.com/cattrust/lion.htmhttp://hometown.aol.com/cattrust/lion.htm External link.
  • Alden, P., R. Estes, D. Schlitter, B. McBride. 1998. National Audubon Society Field Guide to African Wildlife. New York, United States of America: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
  • Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. 1998. Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
  • Carbone, C., and J. L. Gittleman. 2002. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295:2273-2276.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Cat Specialist Group 2001, 2003. "Panthera leo" (On-line). 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed February 09, 2004 at http://www.redlist.org/search/details.php?species=15951.
  • Cat Specialist Group, 1996. "African Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758)" (On-line). Accessed February 09, 2004 at http://lynx.uio.no/catfolk/afrleo01.htm.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Dudley, J. 2002. Issues and Priorities for Mammal Conservation. Conservation Biology, 16/4: 1169.
  • Eltringham, S. 1979. The Ecology and Conservation of Large African Mammals. London, Great Britain: The MacMillan Press Ltd..
  • Estes, R. 1993. The Safari Companion: A Guide to Watching African Mammals. Vermont, United States of America: Chelsea Green Publishing Company.
  • Freedman, B. 1999. Encyclopedia of Endangered Species. Gale Research International, Detriot, London.
  • Garland, T., F. Geiser, and R. V. Baudinette. 1988. Comparative Locomotor Performance of Marsupial and Placental Mammals. Journal of Zoology 215:505-522.
  • Gittleman, J. L. 1982. The behavioural ecology of carnivores. University of Sussex.
  • Grinnel, J., C. Packer, A. Pusey. 1995. Cooperation in male lions: kinship, reciprocity, or mutualism?. Animal Behavior, 49/1: 95-105. Accessed February 10, 2004 at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science.
  • Haas, Sarah K., Virginia Hayssen, and Paul R. Krausman. 2005. Panthera leo. Mammalian Species, no. 762. 1-11
  • Hanby, J., J. Bygott, C. Packer. 1995. Ecology, Demography, and Behavior of Lions in Two Contrasting Habitats: Ngorongoro Crater and the Serengeti Plains. Pp. 315-331 in A Sinclair, P Arcese, eds. Serengeti II. Chicago, United States of America: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. American Naturalist 157:637-645.
  • Kiltie, R. A. 1982. Intraspecific Variation in the Mammalian Gestation Period. Journal of Mammalogy 63:646-652.
  • O'Brien, S., J. Martenson, C. Packer, L. Herbst, V. de Voss, P. Jocelyn, J. Ott-Jocelyn, D. Wildt, M. Bush. 1987. Biochemical genetic variation in geographically isolated populations of African and Asiatic lions. National Geographic Research, 3/1: 114-124.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Packer C, Gilbert DA, Pusey AE, O'Brien SJ. 1991. Kinship, cooperation and inbreeding in African lions: a molecular genetic analysis. Nature 351:562–65.
  • Packer, C., A. Pusey. 2001. Egalitarianism in Female African Lions. Science, 293/5530: 690-693. Accessed February 09, 2004 at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/.
  • Packer, C., D. Scheel, A. Pusey. 1990. Why Lions Form Groups: Food is Not Enough. American Naturalist, 136/1: 1-19.
  • Pickrell, J. 2004. "Man-Eating Lions Not Aberrant, Experts Say" (On-line). National Geographic News. Accessed February 12, 2004 at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/02/0211_030211_tsavolions.html.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Schaller GB. 1972. The Serengeti Lion—A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.
  • Schaller, G. 1972. The Serengeti Lion. Chicago, United States of America: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Sunquist, M. E. and F. C. Sunquist / D. E. Wilson, ed. 2009. Family Felidae (Cats). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 1: Carnivores. 54-169
  • Theodor Haltenorth and Helmut Diller (1977) A Field Guide to the Mammals of Africa including Madagascar. William Collins Sons: London.
  • Trivedi, B. 2004. "To Boost Gene Pool, Lions Artificially Inseminated" (On-line). National Geographic News. Accessed February 08, 2004 at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/06/0612_020612_TVlion.html.
  • Type: Allen, J. A. 1924 Apr 11. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 47: 229.
  • Type: Heller, E. 1913 Nov 08. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 61 (19): 2.
  • Type: Heller, E. 1913 Nov 08. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 61 (19): 4.
  • Urban, M., P. West. 2002. "Lion Research Center" (On-line). Accessed February 10, 2004 at http://www.lionresearch.org/.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204

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