Overview

Brief Summary

The Amazon river frog, Lithobates palmipes, is a common terrestrial frog found near slow moving rivers, ponds, flooded forests and other permanent water sources.  L. palmipes is one of a few neotropical frog species dispersed widely throughout much of the Amazon basin from Columbia, Venezuela and the Guianas south through eastern Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and across Brazil to the Atlantic Forest.  

Mostly because of its enormous range which makes it extremely hard to sample across, L. palmipes it has a long history of being considered a single species; however more recent morphological and molecular taxonomic work finds that L. palmipes represents a species complex containing multiple species.  Although it is listed as of least concern by the IUCN, it is highly likely that some deep split lineages represent cryptic species that are vulnerable. 

Lithobates palmipes is a small nocturnal frog, 50-120mm (2-4.7 in) in snout vent length.  Between the two lateral ridges that run along its back it is usually some variation of green in coloring; elsewhere on its dorsal surface it is grey/green and variously speckled with black; legs are lighter cream/grey.  A black stripe runs from the snout through the eye and above the tympanum.  The ventral side is cream-colored.  Females deposit eggs into water sources.  Variation in adaptions to flow in water and other larval characters may show greater morphological differentiation than adults among cryptic species. 

The L. palmipes species group are only native Lithobates species found in Brazil, though one other species from the genus, L. catesbeianus (the American bullfrog) has been introduced from North America and competes for resources.

  • (Beirne and Witworth, N.D.; de Jesus Rodrigues et al. 2013; Fouquet et al. 2007; Hillis and de Sá 1988; La Marca et al. 2014; Roberto et al. 2013; Volpe and Harvey 1958)
  • Beirne, C. and Whitworth, A. No date. Frogs of the Yachana Reserve: Lithobates palmipes complex. Retrieved July 2 2015 from http://www.cadwizz.net/frogs/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=85:lithobates-palmipes-complex&catid=43:ranidae&Itemid=59
  • Fouquet A, Gilles A, Vences M, Marty C, Blanc M, Gemmell NJ (2007) Underestimation of Species Richness in Neotropical Frogs Revealed by mtDNA Analyses. PLoS ONE 2(10): e1109. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001109
  • Hillis, D.M. and de Sá, R. 1988. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Rana palmipes group (Salientia: Ranidae). Herpetological Monographs: 1-26.
  • La Marca, E., C. Azevedo-Ramos, L.A. Coloma, S. Ron, J. Hardy 2010. Lithobates palmipes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. . Downloaded on 09 July 2015.
  • Roberto, I. J., Ribeiro, S. C., & Loebmann, D. 2013. Amphibians of the state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil: a preliminary assessment. Biota Neotropica, 13(1), 322-330.
  • Volpe, E. P., and Harvey, S. M. 1958. Hybridization and larval development in Rana palmipes Spix. Copeia, 197-207.
  • de Jesus Rodrigues, D., Barros, A. B., de Noronha, J. D. C., & José, E. 2013. New record and distribution map of Lithobates palmipes (Spix, 1824)(Anura, Ranidae) in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Herpetology Notes, volume 6: 391-393.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs widely in the Amazon Basin of South America including in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, the Guianas and Brazil. The species also occurs in the northern Atlantic forest (Sergipe to Paraiba, Brazil), and in the Central Range and southeast corner of the island of Trinidad (in Trinidad and Tobago). The species has been recorded from close to sea level to up to 1,000m asl (Venezuela).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a nocturnal tropical rainforest species, living terrestrially in and around permanent waterbodies, including slow-flowing watercourses, rivers, and lakes and at the edges of ponds. It also occurs in flooded forest. Their eggs are deposited in the water at the beginning of the dry season, and the tadpoles develop in water. The Atlantic Forest populations breed year round and only in slow-moving streams.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lithobates palmipes

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Enrique La Marca, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Jerry Hardy

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
It is common in parts of the Brazilian Amazon but uncommon to rare elsewhere.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species as a whole. In Peru, local populations are threatened by the introduction of Lithobates catesbeianus. Local populations are probably also impacted by habitat loss.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in many protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Amazon River frog

The Amazon River frog (Lithobates palmipes) is a species of frog in the Ranidae family that occurs in the northern and Amazonian South America east of the Andes (Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and Trinidad), with scattered records from northeastern Brazil.[2] In Spanish, it is known as rana verde verdadera. Its natural habitats are tropical rainforests near permanent waterbodies. It is not considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.[1]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Enrique La Marca, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron & Jerry Hardy (2010). "Lithobates palmipes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Lithobates palmipes (Spix, 1824)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
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