The Amazon river frog, Lithobates palmipes, is a common terrestrial frog found near slow moving rivers, ponds, flooded forests and other permanent water sources. L. palmipes is one of a few neotropical frog species dispersed widely throughout much of the Amazon basin from Columbia, Venezuela and the Guianas south through eastern Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and across Brazil to the Atlantic Forest.
Mostly because of its enormous range which makes it extremely hard to sample across, L. palmipes it has a long history of being considered a single species; however more recent morphological and molecular taxonomic work finds that L. palmipes represents a species complex containing multiple species. Although it is listed as of least concern by the IUCN, it is highly likely that some deep split lineages represent cryptic species that are vulnerable.
Lithobates palmipes is a small nocturnal frog, 50-120mm (2-4.7 in) in snout vent length. Between the two lateral ridges that run along its back it is usually some variation of green in coloring; elsewhere on its dorsal surface it is grey/green and variously speckled with black; legs are lighter cream/grey. A black stripe runs from the snout through the eye and above the tympanum. The ventral side is cream-colored. Females deposit eggs into water sources. Variation in adaptions to flow in water and other larval characters may show greater morphological differentiation than adults among cryptic species.
The L. palmipes species group are only native Lithobates species found in Brazil, though one other species from the genus, L. catesbeianus (the American bullfrog) has been introduced from North America and competes for resources.
(Beirne and Witworth; de Jesus Rodrigues et al. 2013; Fouquet et al. 2007; Hillis and de Sá 1988; La Marca et al. 2014; Roberto et al. 2013; Volpe and Harvey 1958)
- (Beirne and Witworth, N.D.; de Jesus Rodrigues et al. 2013; Fouquet et al. 2007; Hillis and de Sá 1988; La Marca et al. 2014; Roberto et al. 2013; Volpe and Harvey 1958)
- Beirne, C. and Whitworth, A. No date. Frogs of the Yachana Reserve: Lithobates palmipes complex. Retrieved July 2 2015 from http://www.cadwizz.net/frogs/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=85:lithobates-palmipes-complex&catid=43:ranidae&Itemid=59
- Fouquet A, Gilles A, Vences M, Marty C, Blanc M, Gemmell NJ (2007) Underestimation of Species Richness in Neotropical Frogs Revealed by mtDNA Analyses. PLoS ONE 2(10): e1109. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001109
- Hillis, D.M. and de Sá, R. 1988. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Rana palmipes group (Salientia: Ranidae). Herpetological Monographs: 1-26.
La Marca, E., C. Azevedo-Ramos, L.A. Coloma, S. Ron, J. Hardy 2010. Lithobates palmipes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2.
. Downloaded on 09 July 2015.
- Roberto, I. J., Ribeiro, S. C., & Loebmann, D. 2013. Amphibians of the state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil: a preliminary assessment. Biota Neotropica, 13(1), 322-330.
- Volpe, E. P., and Harvey, S. M. 1958. Hybridization and larval development in Rana palmipes Spix. Copeia, 197-207.
- de Jesus Rodrigues, D., Barros, A. B., de Noronha, J. D. C., & José, E. 2013. New record and distribution map of Lithobates palmipes (Spix, 1824)(Anura, Ranidae) in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Herpetology Notes, volume 6: 391-393.
Habitat and Ecology
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lithobates palmipes
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2004Least Concern (LC)
Amazon River frog
The Amazon River frog (Lithobates palmipes) is a species of frog in the Ranidae family that occurs in the northern and Amazonian South America east of the Andes (Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and Trinidad), with scattered records from northeastern Brazil. In Spanish, it is known as rana verde verdadera. Its natural habitats are tropical rainforests near permanent waterbodies. It is not considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
- D. M. Hillis & R. de Sá (1984). "Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Rana palmipes species group (Salientia: Ranidae)" (PDF). Herpetological Monographs 2: 1–26.
- Enrique La Marca, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron & Jerry Hardy (2010). "Lithobates palmipes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Lithobates palmipes (Spix, 1824)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
|This true frog article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|