IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)

Comprehensive Description

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The snout-vent length can reach 250 mm for females, with males slightly smaller, reaching 180 mm (Norman 1994). The head is short and broad, with distinct cephalic crests (Lutz 1934). The skull has broad frontoparietals whose lateral edges form distinct supraorbital crests, which then extend forward onto the nasal bones to form canthal and preorbital crests (Brandão et al. 2007). Both supraocular and retroocular crests are present, the supraocular crest forming an obtuse angle with the retroocular crest (Lutz 1934). The snout is rounded in dorsal view and truncate in profile. A distinct tympanum is visible, slightly smaller than the eye itself. Behind the eyes are large bean-shaped parotoid glands (Lutz 1934). The pupil is large and slit-shaped (Norman 1994).

The body is globular, short and stout (Norman 1994). Limbs are short, and the hind legs are weak. A tibial gland, which secretes a milky bufotoxin, runs down each hind leg (Lutz 1934). Fingers/toes are fairly slender and the inside toes and fingers are bent outwards. There are no expanded discs. There is no webbing on the fingers, but there is very minimal webbing between the toes. The relative length of the digits is as follows: II>III>I>IV for fingers, and V>IV>III>I>II for toes. There are no tubercles on the fingers or toes. Males have nuptial pads on their thumbs (Norman 1994). The skin is rough, covered with blunt, spiny warts that are usually conical (Norman 1994). These abundant warts are light near the bottom and spotted with black on the top (Lutz 1934).

Dorsally, B. schneideri is brownish to yellowish (Norman 1994). The belly and throat are whitish and closely speckled with dark spots.Along the middle of the back are chocolate brown transverse blotches or spots. The sides and the dorsum have whitish spots and reticulations, with fewer on the dorsum. Males may also have large black spots dorsally (Lutz 1934).

Tadpoles are 24.31 mm +/- 1.26 mm at stage 36 to 38. The body is oval and depressed when viewed dorsally, and globular/depressed when viewed laterally. The snout is rounded in dorsal view and sloped in lateral view. Eyes are dorsal and directed laterally. Nares are large, oval-shaped and directed dorsolaterally, with a very small projection on the marginal rim. Nares length is greater than 1/2 the diameter of the eye. The spiracle is medial and laterally directed, with the opening located at two-thirds of the body length. The vent tube is short and medial, and fused with the ventral fin. The dorsal fin distinctly rises during the last third of the tail, and the ventral fin is low. The tadpole's oral disc is anteroventral and emarginated laterally. Papillae are small and triangular, with a row of submarginal papillae sometimes present. The tooth row formula is 2(2)/3(1), where A-1 and A-2 are equal in length and P-2 is slightly longer than P-3. The jaw sheaths are narrow, with triangular serration. The upper jaw is arc-shaped while the lower jaw is u-shaped (Rossa-Feres and Nomura 2006).

The tadpole body is gray (Cei 1980) while the tail is dark with translucent fins (Rossa-Feres and Nomura 2006).

It may possibly represent a species complex (Stuart et al. 2008).


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