Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Adults attain a snout-vent length of 36mm in males and 45mm in females. This species has short slender arms, slender unwebbed fingers, small digital discs, and toes that are long, slender and 3/4 webbed. Dorsal surface is tuberculate, ventral surface is smooth to granular. Dorsal coloration is gray to brown with dark brown to green spots. Ventral coloration is dull grey to white on the throat and belly, and pale yellow on the groin, thigh, ventral surface of shank, and inner surface of the tarsus. There is a white line on the upper lip.

See another account at californiaherps.com.

  • Gaudin, A. J. (1963). ''Hyla cadaverina.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 225.1-225.2.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs from southwestern California, south into northern Baja California Norte, Mexico. It is found from near sea level to about 2,290m asl (Stebbins 1985).
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Range extends from southwestern California south into northern Baja California Norte, Mexico. Elevational range extends from near sea level to about 2,290 meters (7,500 feet) (Stebbins 1985).

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Distribution and Habitat

Found in southwestern California and northwestern Baja California, Mexico; in the mountains and canyons from San Luis Obispo, California to Bahia de los Angeles, Baja California. This species occurs from the costal canyons east to the western edge of the Mojave and Colorado deserts. Found in elevations from near sea level to 1700m. Often found in riparian habitats.

  • Gaudin, A. J. (1963). ''Hyla cadaverina.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 225.1-225.2.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 5 cm

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Type Information

Syntype; Syntype for Pseudacris cadaverina
Catalog Number: USNM 3230
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Tejon Pass, Kern, California, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1866. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2. 6: 84.; Syntype: Hallowell, E. 1854. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 7 (3): 96.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in rocky canyons near streams and washes with permanent pools. It requires some shade as it retreats to shaded rock crevices during the day. It ranges from desert and coastal stream-courses to the pine belt in the mountains (Stebbins 1985). It breeds in the quiet water of rocky streams. Eggs are attached to twigs or are loose on the bottom (Stebbins 1972).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Comments: This species is found in rocky canyons near streams and washes with permanent pools. It requires some shade as it retreats to shaded rock crevices during the day. It ranges from desert and coastal stream-courses to the pine belt in the mountains (Stebbins 1985). It breeds in the quiet water of rocky streams. Eggs are attached to twigs or are loose on the bottom (Stebbins 1972).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Adults feed on insects, spiders, and centipedes. Larvae probably eat algae, organic debris, and plant tissue.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). Phillipsen and Metcalf (2009) mapped 46 locations across southern California from which specimens recently were collected.

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Global Abundance

10,000 - 100,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000.

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General Ecology

Most individuals range over small portion of streamcourse; 83% of movements <25 m in 1-year study (Kay 1989).

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Inactive in cold temperatures and hot, dry weather. Primarily nocturnal except during the breeding season when it may be heard quacking day and night.

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Reproduction

Breeds February-early October (Stebbins 1985). Lays eggs singly.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow to narrow.

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Population

Population
This is a relatively common species.

Population Trend
Stable
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Population trend is unknown but probably stable to slightly declining.

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%

Comments: Likely relatively stable in extent of occurrence, probably less than 25% decline in population size, area of occurrence, and number/condition of occurrences.

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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

A stream-dwelling population in the San Gabriel mountains was observed to use deep crevices away from the stream to hibernate for the winter.

  • Gaudin, A. J. (1963). ''Hyla cadaverina.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 225.1-225.2.
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Threats

Major Threats
Under natural conditions, solar UV-B radiation reduces embryo survival. The effects of this at the population level remain to be determined (Anzalone et al. 1998). Local populations are impacted by urbanization.
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Degree of Threat: Unknown

Comments: The rugged habitat of this frog inhibits various kinds of habitat alterations that often occur in nearby relatively flat areas.

Under natural conditions, solar UV-B radiation reduces embryo survival; effects at the population level remain to be determined (Anzalone et al. 1998).

Ervin (2005) reported: "California treefrogs are difficult to find in presumably high-quality habitat where populations of non-native predatory fish have become established, suggesting that some populations may be experiencing declines (R. Fisher, personal communication; personal observations)." However, this species generally thrives in areas where frog breeding pools are relatively small and/or isolated and and not favorable for establishment of predatory fishes.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in San Pedro Martir National Park in Mexico.
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Wikipedia

California tree frog

The California tree frog or California chorus frog (Pseudacris cadaverina) is a "true" tree frog (family Hylidae) from southern California (USA) and Baja California (Mexico).[2] Until recently, the California tree frog was classified in the genus Hyla.[2][3]

Description[edit]

It is a cryptically colored species of tree frog, often resembling granitic stones. It is grey or light brown on its dorsum with darker blotches, and has a whitish venter. It is yellow on the undersides of its legs, groin, and lower abdomen; males of the species have a dusky-yellow throat. The California tree frog has conspicuous toe webbing and pads, and its dorsal skin is roughened and warty. It is 2.9–5 cm (1.1–2.0 in) long.[3][4]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

This species is most likely to occur along streams with abundant boulders and cobbles in their channels. Its distribution is spotty and localized. These frogs are easily handled.[4]

California tree frog is not considered threatened by IUCN: it is a relatively common species with broad distribution, and there are no major threats, except perhaps UV radiation that reduces embryonic survival.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera (2004). "Pseudacris cadaverina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Pseudacris cadaverina (Cope, 1866)". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Bradford Hollingsworth and Kathy Roberts. "Pseudacris cadaverina California Treefrog". SDHMN Field Guide. San Diego Natural History Museum. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Robert N. Fisher and Ted J. Case. "Pseudacris cadaverina California Treefrog". A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Coastal Southern California. United States Geological Survey (USGS). Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Formerly included in the genus Hyla; transferred to the genus Pseudacris by Hedges (1986), based on allozyme data (see also Highton 1991). Cocroft (1994) analyzed morphological and biochemical data and concluded that the Hyla regilla-Hyla cadaverina clade does not arise within the clade containing Pseudacris (traditional sense), P. ocularis, and P. crucifer; he suggested that the most conservative approach may be to leave regilla and cadaverina in the genus Hyla until their relationships are more clearly resolved. da Silva (1997) recommended that for now Hedges' (1986) definition of Pseudacris should be maintained.

A molecular phylogeny of Pseudacris based on mtDNA data (Moriarty and Cannatella 2004) revealed four strongly supported clades within Pseudacris: (1) A West Coast Clade containing regilla and cadaverina, (2) a Fat Frog Clade including ornata, streckeri, and illinoensis, (3) a Crucifer Clade consisting of crucifer and ocularis, and (4) a Trilling Frog Clade containing all other Pseudacris. Within the Trilling Frog Clade, brimleyi and brachyphona form the sister group to the Nigrita Clade: nigrita, feriarum, triseriata, kalmi, clarkii, and maculata. The Nigrita Clade shows geographic division into three clades: (1) populations of maculata and triseriata west of the Mississippi River and Canadian populations, (2) southeastern United States populations of feriarum and nigrita, and (3) northeastern United States populations of feriarum, kalmi, and triseriata. Current taxonomy does not reflect the phylogenetic relationships among populations of the Nigrita Clade (Moriarty and Canatella 2004). For example, the molecular data appear to indicate that triseriata, maculata, and clarkii in the western United States are conspecific, but the authors indicated that further sampling and analysis of the Trilling Frog Clade are needed before their relationships can be determined and an appropriate taxonomy established. Moriarty and Cannatella (2004) found that subspecific epithets for crucifer (crucifer and bartramiana) and nigrita (nigrita and verrucosa) are uninformative, and they therefore discouraged recognition of these subspecies. They concluded that further study is needed to determine if illinoensis warrants status as a distinct species. Molecular data were consistent with retention of regilla, cadaverina, ocularis, and crucifer in the genus Pseudacris.

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