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 Growth form massive, cushion shaped, lobose (6 to 30 cm2 surface area, ca. 5 mm avg thickness). Colour light brown, lighter in formalin. Consistency soft, spongy and compressible. Surface conulose with conules ca. 1 mm in height and 2–4 mm apart. Oscules few (2–4 mm in diameter). Ostia visible in some areas with a diameter of 50–200 µm. Ectosome (100–350 µm in thickness) detachable and armoured with sand grains and foreign spicules.   Ascending primary fibres (50–80 µm in diameter) cored with foreign material to such a degree that sometimes spongin is hardly visible. Foreign material usually sand grains mixed with low amounts of spicules, although some fibres cored exclusively with spicules. Primary fibres connected to a dense, irregular, network of secondary fibres which, in the vicinity of the primary fibres, has the form of a perforated plate. Secondary fibres (10–40 µm in diameter) often with rounded or broadly acute free tips, thin and hardly anastomosing. The secondary network, in its greater part, resembles an unwound clew.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Renata Manconi, Barbara Cadeddu, Fabio Ledda, Roberto Pronzato

Source: ZooKeys

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