The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Edinger, N. E. and Risk, J. M. 1996. Sponge boreholes size as a relative measure of biological and paleonproduction. Lethaia 29: 275 -286.
  • Gibson, R., Hextall, B. & Rogers, A., (2001). Photographic guide to the sea and seashore life of Britain and north-west Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Holme K.E. 2000. Effects of eutrophication on bioeroding sponge communities with the description of new West Indian sponges, Cliona spp. (Porifera: Hadromerida: Cionidae). Invertebrate Biology 119:125-138.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Rosell, D., Uriz, M. J. and Martin, D. 1999. Infestation by excavating sponges on the oyster (Ostrea edulis) populations of the Blanes littoral zone (northwestern Mediterranean Sea). J. Mar. Biolog. Assoc. U. K. 79: 409 -413
  • Syntype: Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 90-92, pl.15, f.1-5.
  • Van Soest R.W.M, Boury-Esnault N., Hooper J.N.A., Rützler K., de Voogd N.J., Alvarez de Glasby B., Hajdu E., Pisera A.B., Manconi R., Schoenberg C., Janussen D., Tabachnick K.R. Klautau M., Picton B., Kelly M., Vacelet J., Dohrmann M., D (2015). WoRMS Porifera: World Porifera database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • van Soest, R.W.M., Picton, B. & Morrow, C., (2000). Sponges of the North East Atlantic. [CD-ROM] Windows version 1.0. Amsterdam: Biodiversity Center of ETI, Multimedia Interactive Software. [World Biodiversity Database CD-ROM Series.] External link.


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