The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Betsch, J. M., J. M. Thibaud, and J. Najt. 1990. Recent progress in the taxonomy of Collembola (Insecta), especially by analysis of morphological homologies. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 115:165-180.
  • Cassagnau, P. 1990. Des Hexapodes vieux de 400 millions d’années: les Collemboles. I. Biologie et évolution. L'Année biologique 29:1–37.
  • Christiansen, K. and E. Pike. 2002. A preliminary report on the Cretaceous Collembola. Pedobiologia 46:267-273.
  • Christiansen, K. and E. Pike. 2002. Cretaceous Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Canada. Cretaceous Research 23:165-188.
  • Christiansen, K. and P. Bellinger. 1995. The biogeography of Collembola. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 64:279-294.
  • Collembola
  • D'Haese, C. 2002. Were the first springtails semi-aquatic? A phylogenetic approach by means of 28S rDNA and optimization alignment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:1143-1151.
  • D'Haese, C. 2003. Morphological appraisal of Collembola phylogeny with special emphasis on Poduromorpha and a test of the aquatic origin hypothesis. Zoologica Scripta 32:563–586.
  • Deharveng, L., 2004. Recent advances in Collembola systematics. Pedobiologia 48:415–433.
  • Frati, F., C. Simon, J. Sullivan, and D. L. Swofford. 1997. Evolution of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase II gene in Collembola. Journal of Molecular Evolution 44:145-158.
  • Greenslade, P. J. 1991. Collembola (Springtails). Pages 252-263 in Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I. Second Edition. I. D. Naumann, P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn eds. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Greenslade, P. J. and P. E. S. Whalley. 1986. The systematic position of Rhyniella praecursor Hirst & Maulik (Collembola), the earliest known hexapod. Pages 319-323 in Proceedings of the 2nd International Seminar on Apterygota. R. Dallai, ed. University of Siena.
  • Hopkin, S. P. 1997. Biology of the Springtails (Insecta: Collembola). Oxford University Press. 330 pp.
  • Lawrence, P. N. 1999. From whence and whither the Collembola? Crustaceana 72(9):1110-1122.
  • Lee, B.-H., U.-W. Hwang, W. Kim, K.-H. Park, and J.-T. Kim. 1995. Phylogenetic study of the suborder Arthropleona (Insecta: Collembola) based on morphological characters and 18S rDNA sequence analysis. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 64:261–277.
  • Mari Mutt, J. A. and P. F. Bellinger. 1990. A catalog of the Neotropical Collembola, including Nearctic areas of Mexico. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida.
  • Park, K. H. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of Collembola based on highly variable region of 28S rRNA gene sequence. Korean Journal of Genetics 24(1):21-29.
  • Rusek, J. 1998. Biodiversity of Collembola and their functional role in the ecosystem. Biodiversity and Conservation 7:1207-1219.
  • Scott, H. G. 1961. Collembola: pictorial keys to the nearctic genera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 54:104-113.
  • Thibaud, J.-M. and J. Najt. 1992. Isotogastruridae, a new family of terrestrial intrerstitial Collembola from the Lesser Antilles. Bonner zoologische Beitr?ge 4:545-551.
  • Whalley, P. and E. A. Jarzembowski. 1981. A new assessment of Rhyniella, the earliest insect, from the evonian of Rhynie, Scotland. Nature 291:317.
  • WoRMS (2015). Collembola. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Wootton, A. 1984. Insects of the World. Blandford. 224 p.
  • Xiong, Y., Y. Gao, W. Yin, and Y. Luan. 2008. Molecular phylogeny of Collembola inferred from ribosomal RNA genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49(3):728-735.


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