The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • A. Wessel, “Stridulation in the Coleoptera – An Overview”, in Insect Sounds and Communication: Physiology, Behaviour, Ecology, and Evolution, CRC Press, 2006, pp. 397-403.
  • A. C. Twomey, The bird population of an elm-maple forest with special reference to aspection, territorialism, and coactions, Ecol. Monogr. 15(2):175-205, from p. 202 (1945).
  • Arnett, R.H. 1973. The Beetles of the United States (A manual for identification). The American Entomological Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  • Arnold'di, L.V., V.V. Zherikhin, L.M. Nikritin, and A.G. Ponomarenko (eds.). 1977. Mezozoiskie Zhestkokrylye. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta, Vol. 161. Nauka Publishers, Moscow.
  • Arnold'di, L.V., V.V. Zherikhin, L.M. Nikritin, and A.G. Ponomarenko (eds.). 1992. Mesozoic Coleoptera. Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Washington, D.C. (English translation of Arnold'di et al., 1977.)
  • Attenborough, D. 1979. Life on earth. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. 319 p.
  • Beutel, R. 1997. Über Phylogenese und Evolution der Coleoptera (Insecta), insbesondere der Adephaga. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenshaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, 31:1-164.
  • Beutel, R., and F. Haas. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of the suborders of Coleoptera (Insecta). Cladistics, 16:103-141.
  • Bouchard, P., Y. Bousquet, A. Davies, M. Alonso-Zarazaga, J. Lawrence, C. Lyal, A. Newton, et al. 2011. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta). ZooKeys, issue 88. 1-972
  • Boving, A.G. and F.C. Craighead. 1931. An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera. The Brooklyn Entomological Society, Brooklyn, N.Y.
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • C. J. Gahan, “X. Stridulating Organs in Coleoptera”, Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 433 - 452, 1900.   doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1900.tb01002.x External link.
  • Caterino, M.S., V. L. Shull, P. M. Hammond and A. P. Vogler. 2002. Basal relationships of Coleoptera inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Zoologica Scripta 31:41-49.
  • Coleoptera
  • Crowson, R.A. 1955. The natural classification of the families of Coleoptera. N. Lloyd, London.
  • Crowson, R.A. 1960. The phylogeny of Coleoptera. Annual Review of Entomology, 5:111-134.
  • Crowson, R.A. 1981. The biology of the Coleoptera. Academic Press, London.
  • D. I. Rasmussen, Biotic communities of Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, Ecol. Monogr. 11(3):228-275, from p. 261 (1941).
  • D. L. Pattie and N. A. M. Verbeek, Alpine birds of the Beartooth Mountains, Condor 68:167-176 (1966); Alpine mammals of the Beartooth Mountains, Northwest Sci. 41(3):110-117 (1967).
  • Fan, J.; Chen, B.; Gao, Z.; Xiang, C. 2005. Mechanisms in Failure Prevention of Bio-Materials and Bio-Structures. Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures. 12(3): 229-237.
  • Fisher, R.C. 1988. An inordinate fondness for beetles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 35:313-319.
  • G. J. Arrow, “The Origin Of Stridulation In Beetles”, Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series A, General Entomology, vol. 17, no. 7-9, pp. 83-86, 1942.   doi:10.1111/j.1365-3032.1942.tb00508.x External link.
  • Haas F; Gorb S; Blickhan R. 2000. The function of resilin in beetle wings. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 267(1451): 1375-1381.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Hlavac, T.F. 1972. The prothorax of Coleoptera: origin, major features of variation. Psyche 79(3): 123-149.
  • Hlavac, T.F. 1975. The prothorax of Coleoptera: (Except Bostrichiformia - Cucujiformia). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 147(4): 137-183.
  • I. K. Sharma, A study of ecosystems of the Indian desert, Trans. Indian Soc. Desert Technol. and Univ. Center Desert Stud. 5(2):51-55, from p. 52 and A study of agro-ecosystems in the Indian desert, ibid. 5:77-82, from p. 79 1980).
  • J. Brown, Ecological investigations of the Tundra biome in the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska, Special Report, no. 2, Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska (1975), from p. xiv.
  • Joy, N.H. 1976. A practical handbook of British beetles. E. W. Classey, Faringdon, England.
  • Kirejtshuk, A.G. 1992. Evolution of mode of life as the basis for division of the beetles into groups of high taxonomic rank. Pp. 249-261 in M. Zunino, X. Bellés and M. Blas (eds.), Advances in Coleopterology. European Association of Coleopterology, Barcelona.
  • Klausnitzer, B. 1975. Probleme der Abgrenzung von Unterordnungen bei den Coleoptera. Entomologische Abhandlungen staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden, 40:269-275.
  • Kukalová-Peck, J. and J.F. Lawrence. 1993. Evolution of the hind wing in Coleoptera. The Canadian Entomologist, 125:181-258.
  • L. D. Harris and G. B. Bowman, Vertebrate predator subsystem. In: Grasslands, Systems Analysis and Man, A. I. Breymeyer and G. M. Van Dyne, Eds. (International Biological Programme Series, no. 19, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1980), pp. 591-
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
  • Lawrence, J. F., Ślipiński A., Seago A. E., Thayer M. K., Newton A. F., & Marvaldi A. E. (2011). Phylogeny of the Coleoptera Based on Morphological Characters of Adults and Larvae. Annales Zoologici. 61(1), 1 - 217.
  • Lawrence, J.F., S.A. Slipinski, and J. Pakaluk. 1995. From Latreille to Crowson: a history of the higher-level classification of beetles. Pp 87-154 in Pakaluk and Slipinski (1995).
  • Lawrence, J.F., and A.F. Newton, Jr. 1982. Evolution and classification of beetles. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 13:261-290.
  • Lawrence, J.F., and A.F. Newton, Jr. 1995. Families and subfamilies of Coleoptera (with selected genera, notes, references and data on family-group names). Pp 779-1006 in Pakaluk and Slipinski (1995).
  • Lawrence, J.F., and Britton, E.B. 1994. Australian Beetles. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.
  • Machatschke, J.W. 1962. Bemerkungen zum System der Coleoptera. Tag. Ber. Dtsch. Akad. Landwiss. Berl. 45:121-137.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • N. N. Smirnov, Food cycles in sphagnous bogs, Hydrobiologia 17:175-182, from p. 179 (1961).
  • Pakaluk, J. and S.A. Slipinski (eds.) 1995. Biology, Phylogeny, and Classification of Coleoptera. Papers Celebrating the 80th Birthday of Roy A. Crowson. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa.
  • Ponomarenko, A.G. 1969. Historical development of the Coleoptera - Archostemata. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 125:1-240. [In Russian]
  • Ponomarenko, A.G. 1971. The geological history and evolution of beetles. Proc. Int. Congr. Entomol., 13th, Moscow, 1: 281.
  • Ponomarenko, A.G. 1995. The geological history of beetles. Pp. 155-171 in Pakaluk and Slipinski (1995).
  • Poole, Robert W., and Patricia Gentili, eds. 1996. Coleoptera. Nomina Insecta Nearctica: A Check List of the Insects of North America, vol. 1: Coleoptera, Strepsiptera. 14-820
  • Smith, S.G. and N. Virkki. 1978. Coleoptera. Animal Cytogenetics, volume 3, Insecta 5. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin.
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 78, 89.
  • Waide RB, Reagan WB (eds) (1996) The food web of a tropical rainforest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
  • White, R.E. 1983. A field guide to the beetles of North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • WoRMS (2015). Coleoptera. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!