Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The striped civet is a shy, nocturnal species that hunts for small tenrecs (shrew-like insectivores), rodents, birds, frogs, reptiles and invertebrates on the forest floor and low down in the trees (2). Occasionally fruit may also be taken (5). They spend the day sleeping in hollow trees, fallen logs, or inside crevices in rocks (2). They are able to store fat reserves, particularly in the tail, in preparation for the winter (June - August), when food sources are scarce (2). Males and females form pairs that defend a large shared territory, marking the boundaries with scent produced by glands around the anus and the cheeks (4). Mating occurs in August and September and after a gestation period of three months, a single young is born. The young is well developed at birth, with open eyes and a covering of fur. Although they are able to walk as soon as three days after birth, their subsequent development is relatively slow. They are fully weaned at two or three months, and leave their parents' territory at around one year of age (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

The striped civet is a Malagasy civet, which is sufficiently different to the civets found on mainland Africa that it is placed in a unique subfamily, the Eupleninae, along with another Madagascan civet, the fanalouc (Eupleres goudotii) (2). The striped civet is the only member of the genus Fossa, and is about the size of a domestic cat, with a stocky body, short, thin legs and a fox-like pointed muzzle. The short, dense coat is light brown with grey around the head and on the back (4) (2). There are four rows of dark spots along the flanks (4), which can blend to form short stripes; the thighs may also feature a few dark spots. The underparts do not tend to have markings, and are pale cream or white in colour (2). Vocalisations include a range of cries and groans, as well as a typical 'coq-coq', which is only produced when in the presence of more than one individual (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

The Malagasy Civet or Striped Civet (Fossa fossana) is native to and located throughout Madagascar only.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species is endemic to the eastern forests and the Sambirano Region in the north-west of Madagascar (Kerridge et al. 2003). It is present as far north as Montagne d'Ambre National Park and as far south as Andohahela National Park in the south-east. Strongholds include the Masoala Peninsula, rainforests at Mananara, Ambatovaky and Zahamena, and the Andohahela forest region. The altitudinal range is sea level to at least 1,600 m, but the species seems much scarcer above 1,000 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Endemic to Madagascar, where it occurs throughout the moist rainforest areas of the north and east. It has also been found in isolated humid forests of Montagne d'Ambre and the deciduous forests in the Ankarana Massif in the far north of the island (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Fossa fossana has a body length between 40 and 45 cm plus a tail that is 21 to 25 cm is length, with the female usually being longer. They weigh between 1.5 and 2 kg. with the male weighing more.

They have short, dense fur which is a brownish color and has 4 rows of dark spots running along the back. The ventral side is more lightly colored. The face resembles that of a fox, with a body about the size and shape of a house cat.

Range mass: 1.5 to 2 kg.

Range length: 40 to 45 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average basal metabolic rate: 5.02262 W.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Madagascar Mangroves Habitat

The endangered Malagasy sacred ibis (Threskiornis bernieri), is found in the Madagascar mangroves ecoregion as well as certain other western coastal Madagascar habitat and the Seychelles. These Madagascar mangroves shelter highly diverse mollusk and crustacean communities, while capturing sediment that threatens coral reefs and seagrass beds. Although up to nine mangrove tree species have been recorded, most of the Madagascar mangrove stands contain six species in four families: Rhizophoracae (Rhizopora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Ceriops tagal), Avicenniaceae (Avicennia marina), Sonneratiaceae (Sonneratia alba) and Combretaceae (Lumnitzera racemosa).

Some ot the other notable avian associates of the Madagascar mangroves are: the Madagascar Heron (Ardea humbloti, VU), Madagascar Teal (Anas bernieri, EN), Madagascar plover (Charadrius thoracicus, VU), and Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides, CR). The Malagasy kingfisher (Alcedo vintsioides) is also thought to occur in these mangroves. This habitat is important for migratory bird species, such as Common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), Crab plover (Dromas ardeola), Gray plover (Charadrius squatarola), African spoonbill (Platalea alba) and Great White Egret (Egretta alba).

A number of mammalian taxa are found in the ecoregion, chiefly lemurs, tenrecs and bats. The sole terrestrial apex mammalian predator of the ecoregion is the Malagasy civet (Fossa fossana), a Madagascar endemic.

Tenrecs occurring in the ecoregion are: Large-eared tenrec (Geogale aurita), the tiniest extant tenrec; Greater hedgehog tenrec found in the Madagascar mangroves, an insectivorous mammal; Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi); and Tailless tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus). Each of these tenrecs is endemic to Madagascar, save for the Tailless tenrec, which is also found on Comoros and a few other islands in the region.

Primates found in the Madagascar consist of several lemur species: the Endangered Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), endemic to western and southwestern Madagascar; the Vulnerable Black lemur (Eulemur macaco); the Vulnerable Red-fronted lemur (Eulemur rufus); the Vulnerable Sambirano Bamboo Lemur (Hapalemur occidentalis); the Endangered Coquerel's Mouse-lemur (Microcebus coquereli), a Madagascar endemic; the Vulnerable Decken's sifaka (Propithecus deckenii), a western Madagascar endemic; Sambirano Woolly Lemur (Avahi unicolor), a northwestern Madagascar endemic; Pale-forked crown lemur (Phaner pallescens), endemic to western Madagascar; Fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius); and Grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

Bats occurring here are the Near Threatened Malagasy rousette (Rousettus madagascariensis), a cave rooster capable of navigating the airspace of rather dense intact forest; Vulnerable Madagascan fruit bat (Eidolon dupreanum); Near Threatened Commerson's roundleaf bat (Hipposideros commersonii); Near threatened long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersi); Rufous trident bat (Triaenops rufus); Malagasy giant mastiff bat (Otomops madagascariensis), a Madagascar endemic; Malagasy White-bellied Free-tailed Bat (Mops leucostigma), endemic to Madagascar and the Comoros islands of Anjouan and Moheli; Malagasy slit-faced bat (Nycteris madagascariensis), a narrow endemic to the Irodo River Valley in northern Madagascar; Mauritian tomb bat (Taphozous mauritianus); Trouessart's trident bat (Triaenops furculus), endemic to Madagascar and the outer Seychelles atolls; Manavi Long-fingered Bat (Miniopterus manavi), endemic to Madagascar and Comoros; Grandidier's Free-tailed Bat (Chaerephon leucogaster); Robust yellow bat (Scotophilus robustus); Malagasy mouse-eared bat (Suncus madagascariensis); and Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka). Flying foxes found in the ecoregion are: Madagascan flying fox (Pteropus rufus), an important seed disperser who mates whilst hanging upside down.

Other mammals found in the ecoregion are the Madagascan pygmy shrew (Suncus madagascariensis); The only Rodentia member in the ecoregion is the Dormouse tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus myoxinus).

There are a limited number of reptilian taxa found in the Madagascar mangroves: Snake-eyed skink (Cryptoblepharus boutonii); and aquatic apex predator Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Some sea turtles, primarily green turtle (Chelonia mydas, EN) and Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, CR), nest along the western coast within the Madagascar mangroves. The declining species Dugong (Dugong dugong, VU) is also found in the mangroves.

There is only one amphibian species present in the Madagascar mangroves: Mascarene ridged frog (Ptychadena mascareniensis).

There is particularly high diversity among the fish populations in the Madagascar mangroves,the families of which include: Mugelidae, Serranidae, Carangidae, Gerridae, Hemiramphidae, Plectrorhynchidae and Elopidae. The neighboring coral reefs that are associated with the mangroves have also been noted for extremely high fish diversity.

  • C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2015. Madagascar mangroves. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
  • Hughes, R.H. & Hughes, J.S. 1992. A Directory of African Wetlands. UUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya/WCMC, Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 2880329493
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© C.Michael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund

Supplier: C. Michael Hogan

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 5.0 of 5

Fossa fossana is found throughout most of Madagascar, from humid lowland forests to dryer higher elevations.

Habitat Regions: tropical

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest ; scrub forest

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This nocturnal and terrestrial species is found in humid tropical lowland, mid-altitude and littoral forests, and is sometimes associated with streams or marshy areas in these habitats (Kerridge et al. 2003). It seems that this species does not adapt to secondary habitats (Kerridge et al. 2003). During the daytime, animals shelter in hollow trees, under fallen logs, or amongst rocks. The gestation period is around 82 and 89 days (Albignac 1973). Young are born well developed, and sexual maturity is attained at about two years of age.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Found in evergreen forests where it takes shelter in crevices and hollow trees (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Fossa fossana eat small mammals including rodents and tenrecs. They also feed on reptiles, frogs, small birds, and invertebrates including freshwater crabs.

They forage on the ground and in low trees and brush, and are usually active at night.

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates, Insectivore , Eats non-insect arthropods)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Fossa fossana fills the ecological niche most commonly filled by fox or cat like animals.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Malagasy civets have very few natural predators as adults, but young animals may be eaten by snakes, birds, and other predators. They are also sometimes preyed upon by dogs that have been introduced to madagascar, and they are hunted by humans for food.

Fossa fossana uses camoflauge and the fact that it is nocturnal to avoid predators.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known prey organisms

Fossa fossana preys on:
non-insect arthropods

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
21.4 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 21.4 years (captivity)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Fossa fossana form pairs around the time of mating, and each pair may have a home range of about a square mile during the mating season.

Mating System: monogamous

Mating occurs during August and September with a single young being born after three months. The young have a full coat of fur, and their eyes are open at birth. They walk around day three, eat meat after a month, and are weaned at two to three months.

Breeding season: August - September

Range number of offspring: 1 to 1.

Average gestation period: 3 months.

Range weaning age: 2 to 3 months.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous

Average birth mass: 67.5 g.

Average gestation period: 82 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
728 days.

The young stay with the parents until about one year of age, when they move on to find their own home ranges.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

The current listing is based on a suspected population decrease in a range larger or equal to 20% over the last 10 years, along with a decrease in the size and quality of the habitat. The decrease is furthered by trapping of the civets for food, and competition with the Small Indian Civet (Viverricula indica)

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix ii

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: near threatened

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Hawkins, A.F.A.

Reviewer/s
Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team) & Duckworth, J.W. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has been found to be locally common in some areas, and is widely dispersed from north to south through eastern Madagascar forests. However, over the last 10 years, the population reduction of this species based on the combined impacts of habitat loss (especially given its habitat requirements), widespread hunting and the effects of feral carnivores, is estimated at 20-25%, and the species is therefore listed as Near Threatened. Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A2cde.

History
  • 2000
    Vulnerable
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
  • 1994
    Vulnerable
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Insufficiently Known
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU A1cde) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (1). Listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This species has been found to be locally common (Kerridge et al. 2003).

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
It is threatened by deforestation of its habitat through conversion to cultivated land, selective logging and charcoal production. This species is also threatened by hunting, and the taste is most preferred among the native carnivores (Golden 2005). Introduced species including dogs, cats, and the small Indian civet Viverricula indica are competitors, and dogs are also likely predators.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The striped civet is threatened by the large-scale deforestation that has occurred on Madagascar (4). Since humans arrived on Madagascar, between 1,500 and 2,000 years ago, around 80% of the original tree cover has been destroyed (2). Additional threats facing the species include trapping for food and competition with the introduced small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is listed on Appendix II of CITES. This species is present in a number of protected areas, including Montagne d’Ambre, Masoala, Marojejy, Zahamena, Ranomafana and Andohahela National Parks, and Ankarana Special Reserve.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

This species is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List and is listed under appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (1) (3). The striped civet occurs within a number of reserves in Madagascar, including Masoala and Montagne d'Ambre National Park, the Mananara-Nord Biosphere Reserve, and Anjanaharibe-Sud Special Reserve (2). Hopes are that conservation projects tied to the development of local communities are the way forward for the conservation of Madagascar's staggeringly rich and unique biological resources (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

The Striped Civet is beneficial to humans because it is hunted for food. It is also a popular attraction for tourists who can photograph it rather easily because it can be attracted to bait stations.

Positive Impacts: food ; ecotourism

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Malagasy civet

"Fossa (genus)" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Fossa (animal).

The Malagasy or striped civet (Fossa fossana), also known as the fanaloka (Malagasy, [fə̥ˈnaluk]) or jabady,[3] is an euplerid endemic to Madagascar.[4]

The Malagasy civet is a small mammal, about 47 centimetres (19 in) long excluding the tail (which is only about 20 centimetres (7.9 in)). It can weigh 1.5 to 2.0 kilograms (3.3 to 4.4 lb). It is endemic to the tropical forests of Madagascar. Malagasy civets are nocturnal. It eats small vertebrates, insects, aquatic animals, and eggs stolen from birds' nests. The mating season of the Malagasy civet is August to September and the gestation period is three months, ending with the birth of one young. The Malagasy civet is listed as Near Threatened by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Classification[edit]

The Malagasy civet was to be placed in the subfamily Hemigalinae with the banded palm civets and then in its own subfamily, Fossinae, because of similarities with others in the group pointed out by Gregory, but it is now classified as a member of the subfamily Euplerinae, after Pocock pointed out more similarities with that one.[5]

Physical description[edit]

The Malagasy civet is a small mammal, about 47 centimetres (19 in) long excluding the tail (which is only about 20 centimetres (7.9 in)). The males can weigh up to 1.9 kilograms (4.2 lb), and the females can weigh up to 1.75 kilograms (3.9 lb). It is the second largest carnivore in Madagascar after the fossa.[6] Its head is about It has the appearance and movements of a small fox.[7] it may be confused with the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica).[8] It has a short coat greyish beige or brown in colour, with dark black horizontal stripes running from head to tail, where the stripes are vertical, wrapping around the bushier tail. The stripes morph into spots near the belly. Its legs are short and very thin.[8]

Behavior[edit]

The Malagasy civet is nocturnal, though sources disagree over whether it is solitary or, unusual among euplerids, lives in pairs. It is not a good climber and frequents ravines. It eats small vertebrates (mammals, reptiles, and amphibians), insects, aquatic animals, and eggs stolen from birds' nests.[9] It is shy and secretive.[10] Their vocalizations are similar to crying and groaning, as well as a sound similar to coq-coq. Pairs of males and females defend a large area (around 50 hectares (120 acres)) as their territory.[11] In the winter, it may store fat in its tail, which can make up 25% of their weight.[12][6] The mating season of the Malagasy civet is August to September and the gestation period is around three months, ending with the birth of one young. The young are rather well-developed, weigh around 65 to 70 grams (2.3 to 2.5 oz), and are weaned in two to three months, leaving their parents at around one year old. The average lifespan of a Malagasy civet is about 21 years in captivity.[1][13][14]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The Malagasy civet is found in lowland and rainforest areas of Eastern and Northern areas of Madagascar, and can also be found in humid and isolated forests in Amber Mountain National Park, and farther north in the less-humid forests of Ankarana Reserve. It can be found from sea level to 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) above sea level, but is only common up to 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above sea level.[8][1]

Conservation status[edit]

The Malagasy civet is listed as Near Threatened by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), with a decreasing population. Though threatened by deforestation, hunting, charcoal production, logging, and competition from introduced species such as dogs, cats, and small Indian civets, it is locally common. Introduced animals such as dogs are likely to prey of Malagasy civets.[1] Its range is now reduced to isolated patches.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Hawkins, A.F.A. (2008). Fossa fossana. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
  2. ^ a b "Fossa fossana". ITIS. Retrieved 1 January 2015. 
  3. ^ Nick Garbutt; Hilary Bradt; Derek Schuurman (2008). Madagascar Wildlife. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-84162-245-3. 
  4. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 560. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  5. ^ Anjali Goswami; Anthony Friscia (29 July 2010). Carnivoran Evolution: New Views on Phylogeny, Form and Function. Cambridge University Press. pp. 68–70. ISBN 978-1-139-48853-2. 
  6. ^ a b "Fossa fossana". http://animaldiversity.org/. Retrieved 1 January 2015. 
  7. ^ Steven Roger Fischer (15 February 2013). Islands: From Atlantis to Zanzibar. Reaktion Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-78023-053-5. 
  8. ^ a b c Nick Garbutt (2007). Mammals of Madagascar: A Complete Guide. Yale University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-300-12550-4. 
  9. ^ Richard T. Corlett; Richard B. Primack (3 March 2011). Tropical Rain Forests: An Ecological and Biogeographical Comparison. John Wiley & Sons. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-4443-9228-9. 
  10. ^ Hilary Bradt; Daniel Austin (1 July 2014). Madagascar. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-84162-498-3. 
  11. ^ Daniel Austin (10 November 2014). Madagascar Wildlife. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-84162-557-7. 
  12. ^ Animals: A Visual Encyclopedia (Second Edition): A Visual Encyclopedia. DK Publishing. 19 March 2012. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-7566-9896-6. 
  13. ^ "Fossa fossana". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 1 January 2015. 
  14. ^ a b Ronald M. Nowak (2005). Walker's Carnivores of the World. JHU Press. pp. 201–202. ISBN 978-0-8018-8032-2. 

Sources[edit]

  • Macdonald, David (ed). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. (New York, 1984)
  • Anderson, Simon (ed). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. (Milan, 1982)

External links[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!