The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Blower, J. G. 1985. Millipedes. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series). No 35. The Linnean Society of London.
  • D. J. Shure, Radionuclide tracer analysis of trophic relationships in an old-field ecosystem, Ecol. Monogr. 43(1):1-19, from p. 15 (1973).
  • Decker, Peter, Reip, Hans Simon, Voigtlaender, Karin (2014): Millipedes and centipedes in German greenhouses (Myriapoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda). Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1066: 1066-1066, URL:
  • Enghoff, H. 1984. Phylogeny of millipedes - a cladistic analysis. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 22:8-26.
  • Enghoff, H. 1990. The ground-plan of chilognathan millipedes (external morphology). Pages 1-24 in Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Myriapodology. A. Minelli, ed. E. J. Brill, Leiden.
  • Enghoff, H., W. Dohle, and J. G. Blower. 1993. Anamorphosis in millipedes (Diplopoda)- the present state of knowledge with some developmental and phylogenetic considerations. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 109:103-234.
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Golovatch, S. I., R. L. Hoffman, J. Adis, and J. W. Demorais. 1995. Identification plate for the millipede orders populating the Neotropical region south of Central Mexico (Myriapoda, Diplopoda). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 30:159-164.
  • Hoffman, R. L. 1979. Classification of the Diplopoda. Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Genève.
  • Hoffman, R. L., S. I. Golovatch, J. Adis, and J. W. Demorais. 1996. Practical keys to the orders and families of millipedes of the Neotropical region (Myriapoda: Diplopoda). Amazoniana 14:1-35.
  • Hoffman, Richard L. 1999. Checklist of the Millipeds of North and Middle America
  • Hopkin, S. P. and H. J. Read. 1992. The Biology of Millipedes. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Jeekel, C. A. W. 1970. Nomenclator generum et familiarum Diplopodorum: a list of the genus and family-group names in the Class Diplopoda from the 10th edition of Linnaeus 1758 to the end of 1957. Monografieen van de Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereeniging, Number 5.
  • Kime, R. D. and S. I. Golovatch. 2000. Trends in the ecological strategies and evolution of millipedes (Diplopoda). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69:333-349.
  • Shear, W. A. 1999. Millipeds. American Scientist 87:232-239.
  • Shear, W. A. 1998. The fossil record and evolution of the myriapods. Pages 211-220 in Arthropod Relationships. Systematics Association Special Volume Series 55. R. A. Fortey and R. H. Thomas, eds. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Shelley, R. M. 2007. Taxonomy of extant Diplopoda (Millipeds) in the modern era: Perspectives for future advancements and observations on the global diplopod community (Arthropoda: Diplopoda). Pages 343-362 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A., eds. Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668:1–766.
  • Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley, and J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics & Evolutionary Research 41(2):87-99.
  • Waide RB, Reagan WB (eds) (1996) The food web of a tropical rainforest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
  • WoRMS (2004). Diplopoda. In: Barber, A. D. (2016). World database of littoral Myriapoda. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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