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BiologyAdults are pelagic occurring near shore, entering lagoons and lower reaches of rivers in schools; often in polluted waters (Ref. 51442, 59043) between temperatures 8-24°C. Juveniles colonize the littoral zone and estuaries (Ref. 51442). Adults feed on epiphytic algae, detritus and small benthic or planktonic organisms, pelagic eggs and larvae while juveniles feed on zooplankton until about 3.0 cm SL, then on benthic animals and plants (Ref. 59043). Spawning takes place at sea near the coast between September and February (Ref. 30578, 51442). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Adults undergo migrations (Ref. 51442).