The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Beckert, S., S. Steinhauser, H. Muhle and V. Knoop. 1999. A molecular phylogeny of bryophytes based on nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial nad5 gene. Pl. Syst. Evol. 218:179-192.
  • Bremer, K. 1985. Summary of green plant phylogeny and classification. Cladistics 1:369-385.
  • Brotherus, V. F. 1925. Musci (Laubmoose), p. iii, In: A. Engler & K. Plant (eds). Die Natürlichen Pflanzen-familien. Vol 10. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
  • Capesius, I. and M. Stech. 1997. Molecular relationships within mosses based on 18S rRNA gene sequences. Nova Hedwigia 64:525-533.
  • Duff, R. J. and D. L. Nickrent. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of land plants using mitochondrial small-subunit rDNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 86:372-386.
  • Garbary, D. G., K. Renzaglia and J. G. Duckett. 1993. The phylogeny of land plants: a cladistic analysis based on male gametogenesis. Pl. Syst. Evol. 188:237-269.
  • Goffinet, Bernard, William R. Buck, and Jonathan Shaw / Goffinet, B., and A. J. Shaw, eds. 2008. Morphology, anatomy, and classification of the Bryophyta. Bryophyte Biology, Second Edition. 55-138
  • Hedderson, T. A., R. L. Chapman and W. L. Rootes. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of bryophytes inferred from nuclear encoded rRNA gene sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 200:213-224.
  • Hyvönen, J., T. A. Hedderson, G. L. Smith-Merrill, J. G. Gibbings and S. Koskinen. 1998. On phylogeny of the Polytrichales. The Bryologist 101:489-504.
  • Kenrick, P. and P. R. Crane. 1991. Water-conducting cells in early fossil land plants: implications for the early evolution of tracheophytes. Botanical Gazette 152:335-356.
  • Kenrick, P. and P. R. Crane. 1997. The origin and early diversification of land plants: a cladistic study. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC.
  • Margulis, L. and K. V. Schwartz. 1996. Five Kingdoms: An illustrated guide to the phyla of life on Earth. W. H. Freeman an Co. New York.
  • Mishler, B. D. and S. P. Churchill. 1984. A cladistic approach to the phylogeny of the `bryophytes'. Brittonia 36:406-424.
  • Mishler, B. D., L. A. Lewis, M. A. Buchheim, K. S. Renzaglia, D. J. Garbary, C. F. Delwiche, F. W. Zechman, T. S. Kantz and R. L. Chapman. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of the "green algae" and "bryophytes". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81:451-483.
  • Mishler, B. D., P. Thrall, J. S. Hopple Jr., E. De Luna and R. Vilgalys. 1992. A molecular approach to the phylogeny of bryophytes: cladistic analysis of chloroplast-encoded 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes. The Bryologist 95:172-180.
  • Newton, A. E., C. J. Cox, J. G. Duckett, J. A. Wheeler, B. Goffinet, T. A. Hedderson and B. D. Mishler. 2000. Evolution of the major moss lineages: Phylogenetic analyses based on multiple gene sequences and morphology. The Bryologist 103:187-211.
  • Schofield, W. B. 1985. Introduction to Bryology. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York.
  • Shaw, A. J. 2000. Phylogeny of the Sphagnopsida based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. The Bryologist 103: 277-306.
  • Vitt, D. H. 1984. Classification of the Bryopsida. In: R. M. Schuster (ed). New Manual of Bryology, vol 2: 696-759. The Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Nichinan, Japan.
  • WoRMS (2015). Bryophyta. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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