Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2002Extinct (EX)
- 1996Extinct (EX)
- 1994Extinct (Ex)
- 1990Extinct (Ex)
- 1988Extinct (Ex)
- 1986Endangered (E)
- 1965Status inadequately known-survey required or data sought
Syrian wild ass
The Syrian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemippus), less commonly known as a hemippe, is an extinct subspecies of onager (Equus hemionus) that ranged across present-day Syria, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq.
The Syrian Wild Ass, only one metre high at its shoulder, was the smallest form of Equidae and could not be domesticated. Its coloring changed with the seasons—a tawny olive coat for the summer months and pale sandy yellow for the winter. It was known, like other onagers, to be untameable, and was compared to a thoroughbred horse for its beauty and strength.
European travelers in the Middle East during the 15th and 16th centuries reported seeing large herds. However, its numbers began to drop precipitously during the 18th and 19th centuries due to overhunting, and its existence was further imperiled by the regional upheaval of World War I. The last known wild specimen was fatally shot in 1927 at Al Ghams near the Azraq oasis in Jordan, and the last captive specimen died the same year at the Tiergarten Schönbrunn, in Vienna.
It is believed this may be the "wild ass" which Ishmael was prophesied to be in Genesis in the Old Testament. References also appear in the Old Testament books of Job, Psalms, Jeremiah and the Deuterocanonical book of Sirach.
- Mongolian wild ass (khulan), Equus hemionus hemionus
- Turkmenian kulan, Equus hemionus kulan
- Indian wild ass (khur), Equus hemionus khur
- Persian onager, Equus hemionus onager
- "hemippe", Merriam-Webster.com, Merriam-Webster, 2013, retrieved 2013-02-06
- Harper, Francis (1945), "Syrian Wild Ass", Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Old World, New York: American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, pp. 367–371, LCCN 46000560, retrieved 2013-02-07
- Samuel Sidney (1893). The Book of the Horse. Cassell & Co. Ltd. p. 180.
- Mazin B. Qumsiyeh (1996). Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press. p. 191. ISBN 0-89672-364-X.
- G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, and Heinz-Josef Fabry (2003). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume 12. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 73–76. ISBN 0-8028-2336-X.
- Peter Maas. "Equus hemionus hemippus". The Extinction Website. Retrieved 2009-11-20.
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