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Leptolalax is a genus of frogs (order Anura) in the family Megophryidae. They are sometimes known as Asian toads, although many species-specific common names do not follow this convention, and many species do not have common names. They are widely distributed in southeastern and eastern Asia, from southern China and northeastern India to the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Leptolalax are typically small and have a cryptic colour pattern and no obvious morphological characters useful in systematic studies. Consequently, both molecular genetic analyses and analysis of advertisement calls by male frogs have been important in identifying new species.
Two subgenera are recognized: Leptolalax and Lalos (the latter was first named as Lalax, but the name was already occupied). Lalos has a more northern distribution and only includes species from the continental Asia, whereas Leptolalax includes all the species from Borneo (Leptolalax arayai, Leptolalax dringi, Leptolalax fritinniens, Leptolalax gracilis, Leptolalax hamidi, Leptolalax maurus, and Leptolalax pictus) as well as few continental species (Leptolalax croceus, Leptolalax melicus) and Leptolalax kajangensis from Tioman Island, at least provisionally.
Most Leptolalax species have been reported from very small areas and a few species have large areas of occurrence. Whether this distinction is real or the wide-spread species represents cryptic species complexes remains to be confirmed.
- Leptolalax aereus Rowley, Stuart, Richards, Phimmachak, and Sivongxay, 2010
- Leptolalax alpinus Fei, Ye, and Li, 1990
- Leptolalax applebyi Rowley and Cao, 2009
- Leptolalax arayai Matsui, 1997
- Leptolalax bidoupensis Rowley, Le, Tran, and Hoang, 2011
- Leptolalax bourreti Dubois, 1983
- Leptolalax croceus Rowley, Hoang, Le, Dau, and Cao, 2010
- Leptolalax dringi Dubois, 1987
- Leptolalax eos Ohler, Wollenberg, Grosjean, Hendrix, Vences, Ziegler, and Dubois, 2011
- Leptolalax firthi Rowley, Hoang, Dau, and Le, 2012
- Leptolalax fritinniens Dehling and Matsui, 2013
- Leptolalax fuliginosus Matsui, 2006
- Leptolalax gracilis (Günther, 1872)
- Leptolalax hamidi Matsui, 1997
- Leptolalax heteropus (Boulenger, 1900)
- Leptolalax kajangensis Grismer, Grismer, and Youmans, 2004
- Leptolalax kecil Matsui, Daicus, Norhayati, and Yong, 2009
- Leptolalax khasiorum Das, Tron, Rangad, and Hooroo, 2010
- Leptolalax lateralis (Anderson 1871)
- Leptolalax liui Fei and Ye, 1990
- Leptolalax maurus Inger, Lakim, Biun, and Yambun, 1997
- Leptolalax melanoleucus Matsui, 2006
- Leptolalax melicus Rowley, Stuart, Thy, and Emmett, 2010
- Leptolalax minimus (Taylor, 1962)
- Leptolalax nahangensis Lathrop, Murphy, Orlov, and Ho, 1998
- Leptolalax nokrekensis (Mathew and Sen, 2010)
- Leptolalax nyx Ohler, Wollenberg, Grosjean, Hendrix, Vences, Ziegler, and Dubois, 2011
- Leptolalax oshanensis (Liu, 1950)
- Leptolalax pelodytoides (Boulenger, 1893)
- Leptolalax pictus Malkmus, 1992
- Leptolalax platycephalus Dehling, 2012
- Leptolalax pluvialis Ohler, Marquis, Swan, and Grosjean, 2000
- Leptolalax solus Matsui, 2006
- Leptolalax sungi Lathrop, Murphy, Orlov, and Ho, 1998
- Leptolalax tamdil Sengupta, Sailo, Lalremsanga, Das, and Das, 2010
- Leptolalax tuberosus Inger, Orlov, and Darevsky, 1999
- Leptolalax ventripunctatus Fei, Ye, and Li, 1990
- Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Leptolalax Dubois, 1980". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- Matsui, M. (1997). "Call characteristics of Malaysian Leptolalax with a description of two new species (Anura: Pelobatidae)". Copeia 1997: 158–165. JSTOR 1447851.
- Ohler, A.; K. C. Wollenberg, P. Grosjean, R. Hendrix, M. Vences, T. Ziegler, A. Dubois (2011). "Sorting out Lalos: description of new species and additional taxonomic data on megophryid frogs from northern Indochina (genus Leptolalax, Megophryidae, Anura)". Zootaxa 3147: 1–83.
- Dehling, J.M.; Matsui, M. (2013). "A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo)". Zootaxa 3670 (1): 33–44.
- Rowley, J.J.L., Le, D.T.T, Tran, D.T.A., & Hoang, H.D. (2011). "A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from southern Vietnam." Zootaxa 2796: 15-28.