Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Heterocarpus hostilis Faxon, 1893
Catalog Number: USNM 21119
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Cocos Island, Costa Rica, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 1408 to 1408
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype:
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Heterocarpus cutressi Monterrosa, 1988
Catalog Number: USNM 234163
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Sex/Stage: male; female; ; ovigerous
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): Monterrosa
Year Collected: 1985
Locality: S Of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico, Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 500 to 500
  • Paratype:
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Heterocarpus cutressi Monterrosa, 1988
Catalog Number: USNM 234162
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Sex/Stage: male;
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): D. Hensley
Year Collected: 1983
Locality: SW Of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico, Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 777 to 777
  • Holotype:
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 560 - 25000
  Temperature range (°C): 5.910 - 5.910
  Nitrate (umol/L): 28.093 - 28.093
  Salinity (PPS): 34.334 - 34.334
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.193 - 4.193
  Phosphate (umol/l): 2.014 - 2.014
  Silicate (umol/l): 13.562 - 13.562

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 560 - 25000
 
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 615 - 615
  Temperature range (°C): 6.996 - 6.996
  Nitrate (umol/L): 42.633 - 42.633
  Salinity (PPS): 34.614 - 34.614
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.672 - 0.672
  Phosphate (umol/l): 3.027 - 3.027
  Silicate (umol/l): 58.785 - 58.785
 
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Depth range based on 493 specimens in 32 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 255 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 50 - 25000
  Temperature range (°C): 2.620 - 27.029
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.336 - 42.633
  Salinity (PPS): 34.209 - 36.291
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.500 - 6.187
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.324 - 3.027
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.569 - 128.747

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 50 - 25000

Temperature range (°C): 2.620 - 27.029

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.336 - 42.633

Salinity (PPS): 34.209 - 36.291

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.500 - 6.187

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.324 - 3.027

Silicate (umol/l): 2.569 - 128.747
 
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1281 - 1281
  Temperature range (°C): 3.074 - 3.074
  Nitrate (umol/L): 41.799 - 41.799
  Salinity (PPS): 34.543 - 34.543
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.513 - 1.513
  Phosphate (umol/l): 2.898 - 2.898
  Silicate (umol/l): 128.389 - 128.389
 
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1833.5 - 1833.5
 
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 777 - 777
  Temperature range (°C): 6.690 - 6.690
  Nitrate (umol/L): 30.380 - 30.380
  Salinity (PPS): 34.857 - 34.857
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.414 - 3.414
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.982 - 1.982
  Silicate (umol/l): 22.440 - 22.440
 
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Depth range based on 493 specimens in 32 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 255 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 50 - 25000
  Temperature range (°C): 2.620 - 27.029
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.336 - 42.633
  Salinity (PPS): 34.209 - 36.291
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.500 - 6.187
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.324 - 3.027
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.569 - 128.747

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 50 - 25000

Temperature range (°C): 2.620 - 27.029

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.336 - 42.633

Salinity (PPS): 34.209 - 36.291

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.500 - 6.187

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.324 - 3.027

Silicate (umol/l): 2.569 - 128.747
 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:127
Specimens with Sequences:116
Specimens with Barcodes:81
Species:19
Species With Barcodes:16
Public Records:59
Public Species:16
Public BINs:21
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Heterocarpus

Heterocarpus is a genus of deep-sea shrimp, mainly of tropical areas all over the world.

Description[edit]

Heterocarpus is characterised by the highly unequal second pair of pereiopods: one side is long and thin and the other is short but stronger, besides the carapace with one or more longitudinal carinae.[1][2]

Species[edit]

So far, 30 species have been described for this genus, Heterocarpus ensifer being the type species. The described species of this genus are:

Ecology[edit]

Many Heterocarpus shrimp are known for using bioluminescence as a defense, spitting it on predators.[3] Studies about their feeding habits,[4] and the fact that they may be found in the stomach contents of some pelagic sharks[5] and other fishes[6] is interpreted as they have benthic habits, but they do migrations to the water column at night. Some species of this genus have high fishery potential, such as H. reedi [7] and H. laevigatus.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fenner A. Chace, Jr. (1985). "The Caridean Shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda) of the Albatross Philippine Expedition, 1907–1910, Part 3: Families Thalassocarididae and Pandalidae" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 411: 1–143. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.411. 
  2. ^ Alain Crosnier (1988). "Sur les Heterocarpus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae) du sud-ouest de l’océan Indien. Remarques sur d’autres espèces ouest-pacifiques du genre et description de quatre taxa nouveaux". Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. 4ème série 10 (A 1): 57–103. 
  3. ^ B. K. K. Chan, I. C. Lin, T. W. Shih & T. Y. Chan (2008). "Bioluminescent emissions of the deep-water pandalid shrimp, Heterocarpus sibogae De Man, 1917 (Decapoda, Caridea, Pandalidae) under laboratory conditions". Crustaceana 81 (3): 341–350. doi:10.1163/156854008783564064. 
  4. ^ S. F. Rainer (1992). "Diet of prawns from the continental slope of north-western Australia". Bulletin of Marine Science 50 (2): 258–274. 
  5. ^ Teodoro Vaske Júnior, Carolus Maria Vooren & Rosangela Paula Lessa (2009). "Feeding strategy of the night shark (Carcharhinus signatus) and the scalloped hammershark (Sphyruna lewini) near seamounts off northeastern Brazil". Brazilian Journal of Oceanography 57 (2): 97–104. doi:10.1590/S1679-87592009000200002. 
  6. ^ M. G. King (1984). "The species and depth distribution of deepwater caridean shrimps (Decapoda, Caridea) near some Southwest Pacific islands". Crustaceana 47 (2): 174–191. doi:10.1163/156854084X00405. JSTOR 20103973. 
  7. ^ P. E. Pérez (2007). "An economic analysis of the Heterocarpus reedi and Cervimunida johni fisheries off northern-central Chile, from 1997 to 2000". Investigaciones Marinas 35 (2): 45–52. doi:10.4067/S0717-71782007000200005. 
  8. ^ Stephen Ralston (1986). "An intensive fishing experiment for the caridean shrimp, Heterocarpus laevigatus, at Alamagan Island in the Mariana archipelago" (PDF). Fishery Bulletin 84 (4): 927–934. 
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