Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:1378
Specimens with Barcodes:770
Species With Barcodes:355
The lily family, Liliaceae, consists of fifteen genera and approximately 600 species of flowering plants within the order Liliales. They are monocotyledonous, perennial, herbaceous, often bulbous geophytes. Plants in this family have evolved with a fair amount of morphological diversity despite genetic similarity. Common characteristics include large flowers with parts arranged in threes: with six colored or patterned petaloid tepals (undifferentiated petals and sepals) arranged in two whorls, six stamens and a superior ovary. The leaves are linear in shape, with their veins usually arranged parallel to the edges, single and arranged alternating on the stem, or in a rosette at the base. Most species are grown from bulbs, although some have rhizomes. First described in 1789, the lily family became a paraphyletic "catch-all" group of petaloid monocots that did not fit into other families and included a great number of genera now included in other families and in some cases in other orders. Consequently many sources and descriptions labelled "Liliaceae" deal with the broader sense of the family.
The family evolved approximately 68 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene eras. Liliaceae are widely distributed, mainly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and the flowers are insect pollinated. Many Liliaceae are important ornamental plants, widely grown for their attractive flowers and involved in a major floriculture of cut flowers and dry bulbs. Some species are poisonous if eaten and can have adverse health effects in humans and household pets.
A number of Liliaceae genera are popular cultivated plants in private and public spaces. Lilies and tulips in particular have had considerable symbolic and decorative value, and appear frequently in paintings and the decorative arts. They are also an economically important product.
- 1 Description
- 2 Taxonomy
- 3 Distribution and habitat
- 4 Ecology
- 5 Cultivation
- 6 Toxicology
- 7 Uses
- 8 Culture
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
The diversity of characteristics complicates any description of the Liliaceae morphology, and confused taxonomic classification for centuries. The diversity is also of considerable evolutionary significance, as some members emerged from shaded areas and adapted to a more open environment (see Evolution).
The Liliaceae family are characterised as monocotyledonous, perennial, herbaceous, bulbous (or rhizomatous in the case of Medeoleae) flowering plants with simple trichomes (root hairs) and contractile roots. The flowers may be arranged (inflorescence) along the stem, developing from the base, or as a single flower at the tip of the stem, or as a cluster of flowers. They contain both male (androecium) and female (gynoecium) characteristics and are symmetric radially, but sometimes as a mirror image. Most flowers are large and colourful, except for Medeoleae. Both the petals and sepals are usually similar and appear as two concentric groups (whorls) of 'petals', that are often striped or multi-coloured, and produce nectar at their bases. The stamens are usually in two groups of three (trimerous) and the pollen has a single groove (monosulcate). The ovary is placed above the attachment of the other parts (superior). There are three fused carpels (syncarpus) with one to three chambers (locules), a single style and a three-lobed stigma. The embryo sac is of the Fritillaria type. The fruit is generally a wind dispersed capsule, but occasionally a berry (Medeoleae) which is dispersed by animals. The leaves are generally simple and elongated with veins parallel to the edges, arranged singly and alternating on the stem, but may form a rosette at the base of the stem.
- Usually indeterminate (lacking terminal flower) as a raceme (Lilium); sometimes reduced to a single terminal flower (Tulipa). When pluriflor (multiple blooms), the flowers are arranged in a cluster or rarely are subumbellate (Gagea) or a thyrse (spike).
- Hermaphroditic, actinomorphic (radially symmetric) or slightly zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetric), pedicellate (on a short secondary stem), generally large and showy but may be inconspicuous : (Medeoleae). Bracts may (bracteate) or may not (ebracteate) be present. The perianth is undifferentiated (perigonium) and biseriate (two whorled), formed from six tepals arranged into two separate whorls of three parts (trimerous) each, although Scoliopus has only three petals, free from the other parts, but overlapping. The tepals are usually petaloid (apotepalous) with lines (striate) or marks in other colors or shades. The perianth is either homochlamydeous (all tepals equal, e.g. Fritillaria) or dichlamydeous (two separate and different whorls, e.g. Calochortus) and may be united into a tube. Nectar is produced in perigonal nectaries at the base of the tepals.
- Six stamens in two trimerous whorls, with free filaments, usually epiphyllous (fused to tepals) and diplostemonous (outer whorl of stamens opposite outer tepals and the inner whorl opposite inner tepals), although Scoliopus has three stamens opposite the outer tepals. The attachment of the anthers to the filaments may be either peltate (to the surface) or pseudo-basifixed (surrounding the filament tip, but not adnate, that is not fused) and dehisce longitudinally and are extrorse (dehiscing away from center). The pollen is usually monosulcate (single groove), but may be inaperturate (lacking aperture: Clintonia, some Tulipa spp.) or operculate (lidded: Fritillaria, some Tulipa spp.), and reticulate (net patterned: Erythronium, Fritillaria, Gagea, Lilium, Tulipa).
- Superior ovary (hypogynous), syncarpous (with fused carpels), with three connate (fused) carpels and is trilocular (three locules, or chambers) or unilocular (single locule, as in Scoliopus and Medeola). There is a single style and a three lobed stigma or three stigmata more or less elongated along the style. There are numerous anatropous (curved) ovules which display axile placentation (parietal in Scoliopus and Medeola), usually with an integument and thinner megasporangium. The embryo sac (megagametophyte) varies by genera, but is mainly tetrasporic (e.g. Fritillaria). Embryo sacs in which three of the four megaspores fuse to form a triploid nucleus, are referred to as Fritillaria-type, a characteristic shared by all the core Liliales.
- A capsule that is usually loculicidal (splitting along the locules) as in the Lilioideae, but occasionally septicidal (splitting between them, along the separating septa) in the Calachortoideae and wind dispersed, although the Medeoleae form berries (baccate). The seeds may be flat, oblong, angular, discoid, ellipsoid or globose (spherical), or compressed with a well developed epidermis. The exterior may be smooth or roughened, with a wing or raphe (ridge), aril or one to two tails, rarely hairy, but may be dull or shiny and the lack of a black integument distinguishes them from related taxa such as Allioideae that were previously included in this family, and striate (parallel longitudinally ridged) in the Steptopoideae. The hilum (scar) is generally inconspicuous. The bitegmic (separate testa and tegmen) seed coat itself may be thin, suberose (like cork), or crustaceous (hard or brittle). The endosperm is abundant, cartilaginous (fleshy) or horny and contains oils and aleurone but not starch (non-farinaceous). Its cells are polyploid (triploid or pentaploid, depending on the embryo sac type). The embryo is small (usually less than one quarter of seed volume), axile (radially sectioned), linear (longer than broad) or rarely rudimentary (tiny relative to endosperm) depending on placentation type, and straight, bent, curved or curled at the upper end.
- Simple, entire (smooth and even), linear, oval to filiform (thread-like), mostly with parallel veins, but occasionally net-veined. They are alternate (single and alternating direction) and spiral, but may be whorled (three or more attached at one node, e.g. Lilium, Fritillaria), cauline (arranged along the aerial stem) or sheathed in a basal rosette. They are rarely petiolate (stem attached before apex), and lack stipules. The aerial stem is unbranched.
- Chromosome numbers
- Vary by genus. Some genera like Calochortus (x=6-10), Prosartes (6,8,9,11), Scoliopus (7,8), Streptopus (8, 27) and Tricyrtis (12-13) have a small and variable number of chromosomes while subfamily Lilioideae have a larger and more stable chromosome number (12) as have the Medeoleae (7).
- Phytochemical analysis
- The seeds contain saponins but no calcium oxalate raphide crystals, chelidonic acid (unlike Asparagales) or cysteine derived sulphur compounds (allyl sulphides), another distinguishing feature from the characteristic alliaceous odour of the Allioideae. Fritillaria in particular contains steroidal alkaloids of the cevanine and solanum type. Solanidine and solanthrene alkaloids have been isolated from some Fritillaria species. Tulipa contains Tulipanin, an anthrocyanin. (see also: Toxicology)
Characteristics often vary by habitat, between shade-dwelling genera (such as Prosartes, Tricyrtis, Cardiocrinum, Clintonia, Medeola, Prosartes, and Scoliopus) and sun loving genera. Shade-dwelling genera usually have broader leaves with smooth edges and net venation, and fleshy fruits (berries) with animal-dispersed seeds, rhizomes, and small, inconspicuous flowers while genera native to sunny habitats usually have narrow, parallel-veined leaves, capsular fruits with wind-dispersed seeds, bulbs, and large, visually conspicuous flowers. (See also Evolution).
The taxonomy of the Liliaceae has a very complex history. The family was first described in the eighteenth century, and over time many other genera were added until it became one of the largest of the monocotyledon families, and also extremely diverse. Modern taxonomic systems, such as the APG which is based on phylogenetic principles using molecular biology, has redistributed many of these genera resulting in the relatively small family that is currently recognised. Consequently, there are many different accounts of the Liliaceae in the literature and older uses of the term occur commonly. To distinguish between them, the Latin terms sensu lato and sensu stricto are frequently used (together with their abbreviations, s.l. and s.s.) to denote the broader or stricter sense of the circumscription respectively, e.g. Liliaceae s.s..
The Liliaceae family was described by Michel Adanson in 1763 and formally named by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789. Jussieu defined this grouping as having a calyx of six equal colored parts, six stamens, a superior ovary, single style, and a trilocular (three-chambered) capsule. By 1845, John Lindley, the first English systematist unhappily acknowledged the great diversity in the circumscription of the family, and that it had expanded vastly, with many subdivisions. As he saw it, the Liliaceae were already paraphyletic ("catch-all"), being all Liliales not included in the other orders, but hoped that the future would reveal some characteristic that would group them better. He recognized 133 genera and 1200 species. By the time of the next major British classification – that of Bentham and Hooker in 1883 (published in Latin) – several of Lindley's other families had already been absorbed into the Liliaceae. Over time the Liliaceae became increasingly broadly, and somewhat arbitrarily defined as all species of plants with six tepals and a superior ovary, eventually coming to encompass about 300 genera and 4,500 species, within the order Liliales in the Cronquist system (1981). Cronquist merged the Liliaceae with the Amaryllidaceae, making this one of the largest monocotyledon families.
Many other botanists echoed Lindley's earlier concerns about the phylogeny of the Liliaceae, but various schemes to divide the family gained little traction. Dahlgren (1985) suggested there were in fact forty – not one – families distributed over three orders (predominantly Liliales and Asparagales). In the context of a general review of the classification of angiosperms, the Liliaceae were subjected to more intense scrutiny. Considerable progress in plant phylogeny and phylogenetic theory enabled a phylogenetic tree to be constructed for all of the flowering plants, as elaborated by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (1998).
Modern APG classification and phylogeny
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) made rapid progress in establishing a modern monophyletic classification of the flowering plants by 2009. Despite establishing this relative degree of monophyly (genetic homogeneity) for the Liliaceae family, their morphology remains diverse and there exists within the Liliaceae clade or grouping, a number of subclades (subgroups).
Particularly enigmatic were Clintonia, Medeola, Scoliopus, and Tricyrtis. Clintonia and the closely related Medeola form one of those subclades, and are now considered a separate tribe (Medeoleae), within the Lilioideae. Of the fifteen genera within the Liliaceae, the ten genera of the Lilioideae subfamily form one morphological group that is characterised by contractile bulbs and roots, and a Fritillaria-type embryo-sac (megagametophyte with four megaspores). The other grouping consists of the five genera constituting the Streptopoideae and Calochortoideae subfamilies characterised by creeping rhizomes, styles which are divided at their apices, and by megagametophyte development of the Polygonum-type (a simple megaspore and triploid endosperm) embryo-sac.
The development of a phylogenetic approach to taxonomy, starting with Charles Bessey's The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants (1915) suggested the Liliales formed some of the earliest monocots. Molecular analysis suggests that Liliaceae arose in Eurasia, around 68 million years ago during the late (Maastrichtian) Cretaceous to early (Paleocene) Paleogene eras with the development of two main evolutionary clades. The first of these, characterised as Lilileae (Lilium, Fritillaria, Nomocharis, Cardiocrinum, Notholirion) originating in the Himalayas about 12 million years ago, and the second, the Tulipae (Erythronium, Tulipa, Gagea) from East Asia at about the same time. On the other hand the Medeoleae (Clintonia and Medeola) may have appeared in North America but were subsequently dispersed, as may have the Calochortaceae sensu Tamura. However, it has been suggested that the Liliaceae may actually have originated in North America dispersing to Eurasia at 30-45 million years ago, and then Erythronium representing a secondary return. Divergence amongst the Liliales probably occurred around 36 million years ago, with the Liliaceae (sensu Tamura) emerging at 27 million years, Liliaceae s.s. at 20 million, Lilieae 12 million and Calochortus 7 million. The closest sister family to the Liliaceae are the Smilacaceae, having diverged from them between 65  and 55 million years ago. Liliaceae fossils have been dated to the Paleogene and Cretaceous eras in the Antarctic.
Core Liliales probably arose as shade plants, with subsequent evolution of Liliaceae s.s. and Calochortus to open areas including deciduous forest in the more open autumnal period, but then a return of some species (e.g. Cardiocrinum). This was accompanied by a shift from rhizomes to bulbs, to more showy flowers, the production of capsular fruit and narrower parallel-veined leaves. Again, some reversal to the broader reticulate-veined leaves occurred (e.g. Cardiocrinum) 
Subdivisions and genera
Due to the diversity of the originally broadly defined Liliaceae s.l., many attempts have been made to form suprageneric classifications, e.g. subfamilies and tribes. Classifications published since the use of molecular methods in phylogenetics have taken a narrower view of the Liliaceae. As of January 2014[update] the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (APweb) recognized three subfamilies, one of which is divided into two tribes.
Various authorities (e.g. ITIS 16, GRIN 27, WCSP, NCBI, DELTA ) differ on the exact number of genera included in Liliaceae s.s., but generally there are about fifteen to sixteen genera, depending on whether or not Amana is included in Tulipa and Lloydia in Gagea. For instance Amana is still listed separately in WCSP.
|Lilioideae Eaton||Medeoleae Benth. (synonyms: Medeolaceae Takht., Medeoloideae Benth.)||Clintonia Raf. - bead lilies|
|Medeola Gronov. ex L. - Indian cucumber-root|
|Lilieae Ritgen (synonyms: Erythroniaceae Martinov, Fritillariaceae Salisb., Liriaceae Borkh., Tulipaceae Borkh.)||Cardiocrinum (Endl.) Lindl. - giant lilies|
|Erythronium L. – trout lily|
|Fritillaria Tourn. ex L. – fritillary or mission bells|
|Gagea Salisb. (including Lloydia Salisb. ex Rchb.)|
– yellow star-of-Bethlehem
|Lilium Tourn. ex L. – lily|
|Notholirion Wall. ex Boiss.|
|Tulipa L. (including Amana Honda) – tulip|
|Calochortoideae Dumort. (synonyms: Calochortaceae Dumort., Compsoaceae Horan., nom. illeg., Tricyrtidaceae Takht., nom. cons.)||Calochortus Pursh - mariposa, globe lilies|
|Tricyrtis Wall. – toad lily|
|Streptopoideae (synonym: Scoliopaceae Takht.)||Prosartes D.Don – drops of gold|
|Scoliopus Torr. – Fetid Adder's Tongue|
|Streptopus Michx. – twistedstalk|
Distribution and habitat
The Liliaceae are widely distributed, but mainly in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The centre of diversity is from southwest Asia to China. Their distribution is diverse, mainly in plains, steppes, and alpine meadows, but also in deciduous forests, Mediterranean scrub and arctic tundra. Tulipa and Gagea provide examples of ornamental geophyte biomorphological types representing continental thermoperiodic zones (Irano-Turanian region), characterised by cessation of underground growth at high temperatures in early summer and requiring low winter temperatures for spring flowering. While some genera are shade-dwelling, such as the Medeoleae, and Streptopoideae, Tricyrtis, and Cardiocrinum, others prefer a more open habitat.
The Liliaceae are ecologically diverse. Species of Liliaceae bloom at various times from spring to late summer. The colorful flowers produce large amounts of nectar and pollen that attract insects which pollinate them (entomophily), particularly bees and wasps (hymenopterophily), butterflies (psychophily) and moths (phalaenophily). The seeds are dispersed by wind and water. Some species (e.g. Scoliopus, Erythronium and Gagea) have seeds with an aril structure that are dispersed by ants (myrmecochory).
Pests and predators
Liliaceae are subject to a wide variety of diseases and pests, including insects, such as thrips, aphids, beetles and flies. Also fungi, viruses and vertebrate animals such as mice and deer. An important horticultural and garden pest is the scarlet lily beetle (Japanese red lily beetle, Lilioceris lilii) and other Lilioceris species which attack Fritillaria and Lilium. Lilium species may be food plants for the Cosmia trapezina moth. A major pest of Tulips is the fungus, Botrytis tulipae.
Both Lilium and Tulipa are susceptible to a group of five viruses of the Potyviridae family, specifically the potyvirus (named for Potato virus Y) group, which includes the Tulip-breaking Virus TBV and the Lily streak virus (Lily mottle virus, LMoV) resulting in 'breaking' of the color of the flowers. The viruses are transmitted by aphids. This breaking effect was of economic importance during the tulip mania of the seventeenth century, because it appeared to be producing new varieties. In modern times tulip breeders have produced varieties that mimic the effect of the virus, without being infected. One of these varieties is known as 'Rembrandt', after the Dutch artist of that name. Contemporary tulip owners commonly had Rembrandt and other artists paint their flowers to preserve them for posterity, hence the 'broken' tulips were known as Rembrandt tulips at that time. Another modern variety is 'Princess Irene'. One of the tulip breaking viruses is also named the Rembrandt tulip-breaking virus (ReTBV).
Many species of Lilieae (in genera Tulipa, Fritillaria, Lilium, and Erythronium) and Calochortoideae (Calochortus and Tricyrtis) are grown as ornamental plants worldwide. Within these genera a wide range of cultivars have been developed by breeding and hybridisation. They are generally used in outdoor gardens and other displays, although in common with many bulbous flowering plants they are often induced to bloom indoors, particularly during the winter months. They also form a significant part of the cut flower market, in particular Tulipa and Lilium.
Tulips have been cultivated since at least the tenth century in Persia. Tulip production has two main markets: cut flowers and bulb. The latter are used, in turn, to meet the demand for bulbs for parks, gardens and home use and, secondly, to provide the necessary bulbs for cut flower production. International trade in cut flowers has an approximate total value of 11 billion euros, which provides an indication of the economic importance of this activity. The main producer of tulip bulbs is the Netherlands, a country that accounts for 87% of the global cultivated area, with approximately 12,000 hectares. Other leading producers include Japan, France and Poland. Approximately ten other countries produce commercial tulips, largely for the domestic market. By contrast, the Netherlands is the leading international producer, to the extent of 4 billion bulbs per annum. Of these, 53% are used for the cut flower market and the remainder for the dry bulb market. Of the cut flowers, 57% are used for the domestic market in the Netherlands and the remainder exported.
Original Tulipa species can be obtained for ornamental purposes, such as Tulipa tarda and Tulipa turkestanica. These are referred to as species, or botanical, tulips, and tend to be smaller plants but better at naturalising than the cultivated forms. Breeding programs have produced a wide range of tulip types, enabling blooming through a much longer season by creating early, mid- and late spring varieties. Fourteen distinct types are available in addition to botanical tulips, including Lily-flowered, Fringed, Viridiflora and Rembrandt. In addition to blooming season, tulip varieties differ in shape, and height, and exhibit a wide range of colours, both pure and in combination.
The largest area of production is also the Netherland, with 76% of the global cultivated area, followed by France, Chile, Japan, the United States, New Zealand and Australia. Approximately ten countries produce lilies commercially altogether. About half of the commercial production is for cut flowers. Many of these countries export bulbs as well as supplying the domestic market. The Netherland produces about 2,200 million lily bulbs annually, of which 96% is used domestically and the remainder exported, principally within the European Union. One particularly important crop is the production of Lilium longiflorum, whose white flowers are associated with purity and Easter.
Although many Lilium species such as Lilium martagon and Lilium candidum can be obtained commercially, the majority of commercially available lilies represent the products of a very diverse hybridisation program, which has resulted in a separate horticultural classification, including such groupings as Asian, Oriental and Orienpet. In addition to a very wide variety of heights, lilies can be obtained in many colours and combinations of colours, and if properly selected can produce an extensive blooming season from early summer to autumn. Because of the history of Liliaceae, many species such as Watsonia (bugle lily) that were previously classified in this family bear the name 'lily' but are neither part of the genus Lilium, or the Liliaceae family.
A variety of Fritillaria species are used as early spring ornamental flowers. These vary from the large Fritillaria imperialis (crown imperial) available in a number of colours such as yellow or orange, to the relatively tiny species such as Fritillaria meleagris or Fritillaria uva-vulpis with their chequered patterns. Erythronium is less common but a popular cultivar is 'Pagoda' with its sulphur yellow flowers. Calochortus (mariposa lily) may be sold as a mixture or as cultivars.
Seeds can be used for propagation of the plant or to create hybrids and can take five to eight years to produce flowering plants. Since interspecific cross-pollination occurs, overlapping wild populations can create natural hybrids.
- Bulb offsets: Daughter bulbs that form on the mother bulb and can be detached.
- Micropropagation techniques including tissue culture.
- Bulbils, which are adventitious bulbs formed on the parent plant's stem.
- Scaling and twin-scaling, used to increase production in slower-growing varieties, in which multiple whole scales are detached from a single bulb.
Bulb offsets and tissue culture produce genetic clones of the parent plant and thus maintaining genetic integrity of the cultivars. Bulb offsets usually require at least a year before flowering. Commercially, plants may be propagated in vitro and then planted out to grow into plants large enough to sell.
While members of the Liliaceae s.s. have been used as food sources in humans, the bulbs of some species are poisonous to household pets (bulb toxicosis) if eaten and may cause serious complications, such as renal failure in cats from Lilies, particularly Lilium longiflorum (Easter Lily). Dogs may develop less serious effects such as gastrointestinal problems and central nervous system depression. Most Fritillaria (e.g. Fritillaria imperialis, Fritillaria meleagris) bulbs contain poisonous neurotoxic alkaloids such as imperialin (peiminine), which may be deadly if ingested in quantity, while other species such as Fritillaria camschatcensis and Fritillaria affinis are edible. Tulips can cause skin irritation due to the presence of tuliposides and tulipalins, which are also found in the flowers, leaves and stems of Fritillaria. These are also toxic to a variety of animals.
Fritillaria extracts are used in traditional Chinese medicine under the name chuan bei mu, and in Latin, bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae. The bulbs of Fritillaria roylei have been used as antipyretics and expectorants. Lilium bulbs, particularly Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii) are used as food in China and other parts of Asia. During World War II, starvation conditions in the Netherlands (Hongerwinter, hunger winter 1944) led to using Tulipa bulbs as food. Calochortus bulbs were eaten by Native Americans and by the Mormon settlers in Utah during starvation. Other members of the family used for food include Clintonia (leaves), Medeola (roots), Erythronium (corms), and Fritillaria (bulbs).
The type genus, Lily (Lilium), has a long history in literature and art, and a tradition of symbolism as well as becoming a popular female name, and a floral emblem, particularly of France (fleur-de-lis). The cultivation of lilies has been described since at least the ninth century, when Charlemagne ordered it to be grown at his imperial palaces. However, the name 'lily' has historically been applied to a wide variety of plants other than the Lilium genus.
The lily appears in ancient literature associated with both sovereignty and virginal innocence, and is mentioned on a number of occasions in the Bible, such as the description in Solomon's Song of Songs (2, 1–2) "I am a rose of Sharon, a lily of the valleys. Like a lily among thorns is my darling among the young women" or the Gospel of Mathew (6, 28) "Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin" to represent beauty. Artistic representations can be found as far back as frescos from the second century BC, at Amnisos and Knossos. Early Christian churches, such as that of the Basilica of Sant' Apollinare in Classe were sometimes decorated with lilies. While predominantly depicted as white, those seen at Akrotiri are red lilies. The white lily has long been seen as a symbol of purity, coming to be associated with the Virgin Mary in the Middle Ages, from which came the name ‘Madonna lily’ (Lilium candidum). A well-known example is Leonardo da Vinci's Annunciation (1472–1475) in which the archangel Gabriel bears a Madonna lily. Other symbolic meanings include glory, love and birth.
The stylised lily, or fleur-de-lis (lily flower) has long been associated with royalty, although it may originally have been derived from the form of an iris. It has also been associated with the head of a spear. Its three parts have been associated with the three classes of mediaeval society, or alternatively faith, wisdom and chivalry. Whatever its exact derivation, it has come to be associated with France and the French monarchy since the earliest Frankish kings. Consequently, it became incorporated into not only French heraldry but also that of many heraldic devices in jurisdictions where there had been historic French influence, such as Quebec and New Orleans. In modern times it appears in many forms, symbolic and decorative, and can be used on compasses to indicate the direction north, as well as the Scouting movement.
Tulips (Tulipa) also have a long cultural tradition, particularly in the Islamic world. The Persian word for tulips, lâleh (لاله), was borrowed into Turkish and Arabic as lale. In Arabic letters, lale is written with the same letters as Allah, and is used to denote God symbolically. Tulips became widely used in decorative motifs on tiles, fabrics, and ceramics in Islamic art and the Ottoman Empire in particular, and were revered in poetry, such as that of Omar Khayan in the twelfth century.
Tulips were an essential part of the gardens of Persia, having been cultivated from the Steppes. As the Seljuks – Oghuz-Turkic leaders originated from the steppes – moved to Persia, and then west, they took tulips with them to Turkey, where many escaped cultivation and became naturalised. Today there are a number of places in Turkey called Laleli (‘with tulips’). Tulips first appeared in the decorative arts in Turkey in the thirteenth century and flourished under the Ottomans, in particular in the royal palaces, and was adopted by the Osmans as their symbol. Further species were collected from Persia and the spreading Ottoman Empire saw to it that tulip culture also spread. By the sixteenth century it was a national symbol, hence the designation "Tulip era", by which time they were becoming of economic importance.
By 1562 the tulip trade had reached Europe with the first shipment to Antwerp, where they were mistaken for vegetables, although they had been cultivated in Portugal since 1530, and first appeared in illustration in 1559, and the first tulip flowers were seen in the Netherlands in 1625. Tulips spread rapidly across Europe in the seventeenth century, and became an important trading item, initially in France before concentrating in the Netherlands. Eventually speculative trading in tulips became so intense as to cause a financial bubble which eventually collapsed, a period known as tulip mania (tulipomania), from 1634 to 1637, similar to the Ottoman Empire's Tulip era.
Nevertheless, since then the tulip has become indelibly associated with the Netherlands and all things Dutch. it was during this period that the tulipiere, a ceramic vase for growing tulips indoors was devised, and the Golden Age of Dutch Painting was replete with images of tulips. Although tulip festivals are held around the world in the spring, the most famous of these is the display at Keukenhof. One of the better-known novels on tulips is The Black Tulip by Alexandre Dumas, père in 1850, dealing with a contest to grow a black tulip in late seventeenth-century Haarlem.
- Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de (1789). "Lilia". Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam. Paris. pp. 48–49. OCLC 5161409. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species Plantarum. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. p. i 302. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
- Stevens, P. F. "Liliaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, September 28, 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- Patterson, T. B.; T. J. Givnish (2002). "Phylogeny, concerted convergence, and phylogenetic niche conservatism in the core Liliales: insights from rbcL and ndhF sequence data". Evolution 56 (2): 233–252. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb01334.x. PMID 11926492. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Tamura, M. N. (1998). Liliaceae. pp. 343–353. In Kubitzki (1998). additional excerpt
- Rodolphe Spichiger, Mathieu Perret, ed. (2004) . "Liliaceae". Botanique systématique des plantes à fleurs: une approche phylogénétique nouvelle des angiospermes des régions tempérées et tropicales (Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants). Lausanne: Science Publishers. pp. 118–119. ISBN 1-57808-373-7. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Simpson, Michael G. (2011). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-08-051404-8. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Mabberley, David J (2013). Mabberley's Plant-Book (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1-107-78259-7. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- Liliaceae. pp. 351–352. Retrieved 23 January 2014. In Singh (2004).
- Weberling, Focko (1992). "1.4.4 The undifferentiated perianth (perigon)". Morphology of Flowers and Inflorescences (trans. Richard J. Pankhurst). CUP Archive. p. 87. ISBN 0-521-43832-2. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- Rudall, P. J.; Stobart, K. L.; Hong, W-P.; Conran, J. G.; Furness, C. A.; Kite, G. C.; Chase, M. W. Consider the lilies: systematics of Liliales. pp. 347–359. Retrieved 14 January 2014. In Wilson & Morrison (2000)
- Furness, Carol A.; Paula J. Rudall (November 2003). "Apertures with Lids: Distribution and Significance of Operculate Pollen in Monocotyledons". International Journal of Plant Sciences 164 (6): 835–854. doi:10.1086/378656. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Ownbey, M. (1940). "A monograph of the genus Calochortus.". Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 27: 371–560. doi:10.2307/2394384.
- Gunn, Charles R (1972). "3. Seed collecting and identification - 35. Liliaceae". In T.T. Kozlowski. Seed Biology: Volume 3. Insects, and seed collection, storage, testing, and certification. Elsevier. p. 134. ISBN 0-323-15067-5. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Baskin, Carol C.; Jerry M. Baskin. (2001). "Types of seeds". Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Elsevier. p. 27. ISBN 0-12-080263-5. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- Watson, L.; Dallwitz, M.J. (1992–2014). "The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval". DELTA – DEscription Language for TAxonomy. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- Sharma, O. P. (2009). "Liliaceae". Plant Taxonomy (2 ed.). Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 490–494. ISBN 1-259-08137-0.
- Tamura, M. N (1995). "A karyological review of the orders Asparagales and Liliales (Monocotyledonae)". Feddes Repertorium 106 (1-5): 83–111. doi:10.1002/fedr.19951060118.
- Peruzzi, L.; Leitch, I.J.; Caparelli, K.F. (2009). "Chromosome diversity and evolution in Liliaceae". Annals of Botany 103 (3): 459–475. doi:10.1093/aob/mcn230. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- Tamura, M. N. (1998). Calochortaceae. pp. 164–172. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-03533-7_22. In Kubitzki (1998). additional excerpt
- "Solanthrene". PubChem. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Turner, Nancy; Harriet V. Kuhnlein (1983). "Camas (Camassia spp.) and riceroot (Fritillaria spp.): two Liliaceous "root" foods of the Northwest Coast Indians". Ecology of Food and Nutrition 13: 199–219. doi:10.1080/03670244.1983.9990754. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Li, H. J.; Jiang Y; Li P. (Oct 2006). "Chemistry, bioactivity and geographical diversity of steroidal alkaloids from the Liliaceae family.". Nat Prod Rep. 23 (5): 735–52. doi:10.1039/b609306j.
- Lindley, John (1846). "Order LXII: Liliaceae - Lilyworts". The Vegetable Kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system. London: Bradbury. pp. 200–205. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- Bentham, G.; J.D. Hooker (1883). "Liliaceae". Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita. Vol III Part II. London: L Reeve & Co. pp. 748–836. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Cronquist, A (1981). An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Walters, Dirk R.; David J. Keil (1996). "Liliaceae". Vascular Plant Taxonomy. Kendall Hunt. ISBN 0-7872-2108-2. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Kelch, D. G. (2002). "Consider the Lilies". Fremontia 30 (2): 23–29.
- APG III (2009). "An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III.". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Chase, M. W.; Duvall, M. R.; Hills, H. G.; Conran, J. G.; Cox, A. V.; Eguiarte, L. E.; Hartwell, J.; Fay, M. F.; Caddick, L. R.; Cameron, K. M.; Hoot, S. Molecular phylogenetics of Lilianae. pp. 109–137. In Rudall et al. (1995).
- Chase, M. W.; Stevenson, D. W.; Wilkin, P.; Rudall, P. J. (1995). Monocot systematics: A combined analysis. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. pp. 685–730. In Rudall et al. (1995).
- Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Seiji Yoshida; Frederick H. Utech; Shoichi Kawano (2001). "Molecular systematics in the genus Clintonia and related taxa based on rbcL and matK gene sequence data". Plant Species Biology 16 (2): 119–137. doi:10.1046/j.1442-1984.2001.00057.x. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Bessey, Charles E. (Feb–Apr 1915). "The Phylogenetic Taxonomy of Flowering Plants". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 2 (1/2): 109–164. doi:10.2307/2990030. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Leitch, I. J.; Beaulieu, JM; Cheung, K; Hanson, L; Lysak, MA; Fay, MF (November 2007). "Punctuated genome size evolution in Liliaceae". Journal of evolutionary biology 20 (6): 2296–308. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2007.01416.x. PMID 17956392. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- Vinnersten, A.; Bremer, K. (September 2001). "Age and biogeography of major clades in Liliales". Amer. J. Bot. 88 (9): 1695–1703. doi:10.2307/3558415. PMID 21669704. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- N. Wikström, N.; Savolainen, V.; Chase, M. W. (7 November 2001). "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree.". Proc Biol Sci. 268 (1482): 2211–2220. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1782. PMC 1088868. PMID 11674868. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- Rina Kamenetsky, Hiroshi Okubo, ed. (2012). Ornamental Geophytes: From Basic Science to Sustainable Production. CRC Press. ISBN 1-4398-4924-2.
- Jeffrey D. Stilwell, Rodney M. Feldmann, ed. (2000). Paleobiology and Paleoenvironments of Eocene Rocks: McMurdo Sound, East Antarctica. American Geophysical Union. p. 162. ISBN 0-87590-947-7. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- Goin, Francisco; Carolina Acosta Hospitaleche; Tania Dutra; Sergio Marenssi (2012). Late Cretaceous/Paleogene West Antarctica Terrestrial Biota and its Intercontinental Affinities. Springer. ISBN 94-007-5491-4. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- Interagency Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). "Liliaceae". Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). "Liliaceae". Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "Liliaceae", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), retrieved 14 January 2014 In WCSP (2001).
- "Liliaceae". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Botanical authorities from WCSP.
- University of California, Integrated Pest Management (January 2014). "Lilium". Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- University of California, Integrated Pest Management (January 2014). "Tulipa". Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- Majka, C. G.; LeSage L. (2008). "Introduced leaf beetles of the Maritime Provinces, 5: the lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii (Scopoli) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)". Proceedings of the Entomology Society of Washington 110 (1): 186–195. doi:10.4289/0013-8797-110.1.186. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Phillips, S. "Tulip breaking potyvirus", in Brunt, A. A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M. J., Gibbs, A. J., Watson, L. and Zurcher, E. J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20 August 1996. Retrieved from Internet Archive on 16 March 2014.
- Garber, Peter M. (1989). "Tulipmania". Journal of Political Economy 97 (3): 535–560. doi:10.1086/261615.
- Beckerman, Janna (18 April 2011). "Tulip Break Virus". Purdue University: Plant and Pest Diagnostic Laboratory. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Inglis-Arkell, Esther (27 April 2012). "The Virus that Destroyed the Dutch Economy". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Tulip breaking or mosaic". Report on Plant Disease 634. Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Sep 1990. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Dekker, Elise L.; Derks, Antonius F. L. M.; Asjes, Cees J.; Lemmers, Miriam E. C.; Bol, John F.; Langeveld, Simon A. (1993). "Characterization of potyviruses from tulip and lily which cause flower-breaking". Journal of General Virology 74 (5): 881–887. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-74-5-881. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Rembrandt tulip-breaking virus". UniProt Consortium: Taxonomy. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Christenhusz, Maarten J.M.; Govaerts, Rafaël; David, John C.; Hall, Tony; Borland, Katherine; Roberts, Penelope S.; Tuomisto, Anne; Buerki, Sven; Chase, Mark W.; Fay, Michael F. (2013). "Tiptoe through the tulips – cultural history, molecular phylogenetics and classification of Tulipa (Liliaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 172 (3): 280–328. doi:10.1111/boj.12061.
- Sunshine flower bulbs. "Global flower bulb production". Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Tulipa spp.". Floridata. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Wilford, Richard (2006). Tulips: Species and Hybrids for the Gardener. Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-763-5. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Types of Lilies". North American Lily Society. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- McGary, Jane (April 2012). "Fritillaria and the Pacific Garden". Pacific Horticulture 73 (2). Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Erythronium 'Pagoda'". Royal Horrticultural Society. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "How To Grow Calochortus". Pacific Bulb Society. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Halinar, J.C. (1997). "Growing Lilies from Seeds". Pacific Northwest Lily Society Bulletin 16 (2). Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Nhut, Duong Tan; Nguyen Thi Doan Tam; Vu Quoc Luan; Nguyen Tri Minh (2006). "Standardization of in vitro Lily (Lilium spp.) plantlets for propagation and bulb formation". Proceedings of International Workshop on Biotechnology in Agriculture. Nong Lam University (NLU), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. pp. 134–137. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Nishiuchi, Y (1986). "Multiplication of Tulip Bulb by Tissue Culture in vitro". Acta Hort. (ISHS) 177. pp. 279–284. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Zhang, Tao; Liang, Jing-long; Zou, Yan; Li, Ron-chong (24–26 June 2011). Micropropagation and bulblet growth of Lanzhou lily affected by plant growth regulators, sucrose and segments position. Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering (RSETE), 2011 International Conference. pp. 8346–8349. doi:10.1109/RSETE.2011.5964101. ISBN 978-1-4244-9172-8. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Heuser, Charles W. (1997). The Complete Book of Plant Propagation. Taunton Press. ISBN 1-56158-234-4. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Langston, Cathy E. (1 January 2002). "Acute renal failure caused by lily ingestion in six cats". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220 (1): 49–52. doi:10.2460/javma.2002.220.49. PMID 12680447. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Hall J (1992). "Nephrotoxicity of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum) when ingested by the cat". Proc Annu Meet Am Vet Int Med 6: 121.
- Volmer P (April 1999). "Easter lily toxicosis in cats". Vet Med: 331. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Van Winkle, Elizabeth (October 2005). "Bulb toxicosis". Veterinary Technician: 728–729. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Peiminine". PubChem. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Leonard Ritter (2010). Illustrated Handbook of Toxicology. Thieme. p. 268accessdate=18 March 2014. ISBN 3-13-149591-X.
- Wink, M (2009). "Mode of action and toxicology of plant toxins and poisonous plants". Mitt. Julius Kühn-Inst. 421: 93–112. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Sasseville, D (2009). "Dermatitis from plants of the new world". European Journal of Dermatology 19 (5): 423–30. doi:10.1684/ejd.2009.0714. PMID 19487175.
- Christensen, LP; Kristiansen, K (1999). "Isolation and quantification of tuliposides and tulipalins in tulips (Tulipa) by high-performance liquid chromatography". Contact dermatitis 40 (6): 300–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1999.tb06080.x. PMID 10385332.
- Nomura, T; Tsuchigami A; Ogita S; Kato Y. (2013). "Molecular diversity of tuliposide A-converting enzyme in the tulip". Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 77 (5): 1042–8. doi:10.1271/bbb.130021. PMID 23649245.
- "Pet Care: Tulip". ASPCA. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Yeum, H. S.; et al. (2007). "Fritillaria cirrhosa, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, lee‐mo‐tang and cyclosporine a inhibit ovalbumin‐induced eosinophil accumulation and Th2‐mediated bronchial hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma.". Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100 (3): 205–13. doi:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2007.00043.x. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Lily Bulb – Exotic Chinese Food". Best Eats. 24 June 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Couplan, François (1998). The Encyclopedia of Edible Plants of North America. McGraw Hill Professional. ISBN 0-87983-821-3. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Kandeler, Riklef; Wolfram R. Ullrich (2009). "Symbolism of plants: examples from European-Mediterranean culture presented with biology and history of art. JUNE: Lilies". J. Exp. Bot. 60 (7): 1893–1895. doi:10.1093/jxb/erp088. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Pierre Augustin Boissier de Sauvages (1756). "Éli". Languedocien Dictionnaire François. pp. 153–154. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- Duby, Georges (1993). France in the Middle Ages 987-1460: From Hugh Capet to Joan of Arc. Wiley. ISBN 0-631-18945-9.
- Joseph Fr. Michaud; Jean Joseph François Poujoulat (1836). "Gestes de Louis IX". Nouvelle collection des mémoires pour servir a l'histoire de France: depuis le XIIIe siècle jusqu'à la fin du XVIIIe; précédés de notices pour caractériser chaque auteur des mémoires et son époque; suivis de l'analyse des documents historiques qui s'y rapportent. Éditeur du Commentaire analytique du Code civil. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- Pavord, Anna (1999). The Tulip. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. ISBN 1-58234-013-7. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Harvey, John H. (Autumn 1976). "Turkey as a Source of Garden Plants". Garden History 4 (3): 21–42. JSTOR 1586521.
- Mike Dash (10 February 2010). Tulipomania: The Story of the World's Most Coveted Flower & the Extraordinary Passions It Aroused. Crown Publishing Group. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-0-307-56082-7.
- Upchurch, Michael (4 March 2001). "How A Turkish Blossom Enflamed the Dutch Landscape". New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Blunt, Wilfred (1950). Tulipomania. King Penguin. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Goldgar 2007.
- "Fritillary (Fritillaria meleagris)". Plantlife. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Judd, Walter S.; Campbell, Christopher S.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Stevens, Peter F.; Donoghue, Michael J. (2007). Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach. (1st ed. 1999, 2nd 2002) (3 ed.). Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-407-3. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- Simpson, Michael G. (2011). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. ISBN 0-08-051404-9. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Singh, Gurcharan (2004). Plant Systematics: An Integrated Approach. Science Publishers. ISBN 1-57808-351-6. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- Rodolphe Spichiger, Mathieu Perret, ed. (2004) . Botanique systématique des plantes à fleurs: une approche phylogénétique nouvelle des angiospermes des régions tempérées et tropicales (Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants). Lausanne: Science Publishers. ISBN 1-57808-373-7. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- Stevens, Peter Francis (2013). The Development of Biological Systematics: Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, Nature, and the Natural System. Columbia University Press, 2013. ISBN 0-231-51508-1. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- Stuessy, Tod F. (2009). Plant Taxonomy: The Systematic Evaluation of Comparative Data. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-14712-0. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Adanson, Michel (1763). Familles des plantes. Paris: Vincent. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de (1789). Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam. Paris. OCLC 5161409. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- A. P. de Candolle (1813). Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- Gray, Samuel Frederick (1821). A natural arrangement of British plants: according to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, &c. including those cultivated for use; with an introduction to botany, in which the terms newly introduced are explained. London: Baldwin. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Lindley, John (1830). An introduction to the natural system of botany : or, A systematic view of the organisation, natural affinities, and geographical distribution, of the whole vegetable kingdom : together with the uses of the most important species in medicine, the arts, and rural or domestic economy. London: Longman. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Lindley, John (1846). The Vegetable Kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system. London: Bradbury. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- Bentham, G.; Hooker, JD (1862–1883). Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita. London: L Reeve & Co. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Engler, Adolf and Prantl, Karl, ed. (1887–1915). Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten, insbesondere den Nutzpflanzen, unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher hervorragender Fachgelehrten. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Adolf Engler, ed. (1900–1968). Das Pflanzenreich: regni vegetablilis conspectus. Leipzig: Engelmann. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- Engler, Adolf (1903). Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien : eine Übersicht über das gesamte Pflanzensystem mit Berücksichtigung der Medicinal- und Nutzpflanzen nebst einer Übersicht über die Florenreiche und Florengebiete der Erde zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen und Studien über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik. Berlin: Borntraeger. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- Carter, Humphrey G. (1912). Genera of British plants arranged according to Engler's Syllabus der pflanzenfamilien (7 ed.). Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Lotsy, Johannes Paulus (1907–1911). Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik. Jena: Fischer. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Hutchinson, John (1959). The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny. 2 vols. Macmillan.
- Dahlgren, R.M.; Clifford, H.T.; Yeo, P.F. (1985). The families of the monocotyledons. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-64903-5. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Kubitzki, K., ed. (1998). The families and genera of vascular plants. Vol.3. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-64060-6. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Takhtadzhi︠a︡n, Armen Leonovich (2009). Flowering Plants. Springer. ISBN 1-4020-9609-7. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Erhardt, Walter; et al. (2008). Der große Zander. Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. Stuttgart: Verlag Eugen Ulmer. ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7.
- Mabberley, David J (2013). Mabberley's Plant-Book (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1-107-78259-7. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- Sharma, O. P. (2009). Plant Taxonomy (2 ed.). Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 1-259-08137-0.
- Reddy S. M., et al., ed. (2007). University Botany - 3. New Age International. ISBN 978-81-224-1547-6. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Rina Kamenetsky, Hiroshi Okubo, ed. (2012). Ornamental Geophytes: From Basic Science to Sustainable Production. CRC Press. ISBN 1-4398-4924-2.
- Redouté, P. J. (1802–1816). Les liliacées. Paris: Redouté. Retrieved 2 February 2014. See also HTML version
- Kerner von Marilaun, Anton (1895–96). The natural history of plants, their forms, growth, reproduction, and distribution', trans. FW Oliver et al. from Pflanzenleben, 1890–1891. New York: Holt. p. 4: 603. Retrieved 5 February 2014. See also HTML version
- Walters, Dirk R.; David J. Keil (1996). Vascular Plant Taxonomy. Kendall Hunt. ISBN 0-7872-2108-2. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Weberling, Focko (1992). Morphology of Flowers and Inflorescences (trans. Richard J. Pankhurst). CUP Archive. ISBN 0-521-43832-2. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- Williams, D. M.; Knapp, Sandra, eds. (2010). Beyond Cladistics: The Branching of a Paradigm. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-26772-9. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- Goldgar, Anne (2007). Tulipmania: money, honor, and knowledge in the Dutch golden age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226301303. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Rudall, P.J.; Cribb, P.J.; Cutler, D.F.; Humphries, C.J., eds. (1995). Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution (Proceedings of the International Symposium on Monocotyledons: Systematics and Evolution, Kew 1993). Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. ISBN 978-0-947643-85-0. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Wilson, K. L.; Morrison, D. A., eds. (2000). Monocots: Systematics and evolution (Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons, Sydney, Australia 1998). Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO. ISBN 0-643-06437-0. Retrieved 14 January 2014. Excerpts
- Columbus, J. T.; Friar, E. A.; Porter, J. M.; Prince, L. M.; Simpson, M. G., eds. (2006). "Symposium issue: Monocots: comparative biology and evolution (excluding Poales). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons, 31 Mar–4 Apr 2003". Aliso (Claremont, Ca.: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden) 22 (1). ISSN 0065-6275. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Anders Barfod, Jerrold I. Davis, Gitte Petersen and Ole Seberg, ed. (2010). Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons (Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons and the Fifth International Symposium on Grass Systematics and Evolution, Copenhagen 2008). Aarhus University Press. ISBN 978-87-7934-398-6. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "MONOCOTS V: 5th International Conference on Comparative Biology of Monocotyledons. New York July 2013". Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Kelch, D. G. (2000). "What happened to the lily family?". Pacific Horticulture 61: 76–79.
- AP Website. "Liliaceae". Missouri Botanical Garden.
- GRIN. "Liliaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- ITIS. "Liliaceae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- NCBI. "Liliaceae". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Watson, L.; Dallwitz, M.J. (1992–2014). "The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval". DELTA – DEscription Language for TAxonomy. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- WCPS (1994). Govaerts, Rafaël, ed. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (enter Liliaceae, under Search). The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "Liliaceae de Jussieu". Global Biodiversity Information Facility Version [xx]. 2013. Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre: Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN). 2010. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.25.3100. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- Chen, Xinqi. "Liliaceae". Flora of China. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Utech, Frederick H. "Liliaceae". Flora of North America. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Cronquist, Arthur (2008). "A Commentary on the General System of Classification of Flowering Plants, in:". Flora of North America. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Liliaceae". Flora of Hawaii & Plant Family Profiles. University of Hawai'i. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- Ali, S. I. "Liliaceae". Flora of Pakistan. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- Stuart Max Walters, James Cullen, ed. (1986). The European Garden Flora. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24859-0. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Brittan, N.H.; et al. (1987). "(Search for:) Liliaceae". Flora of Australia Online. vol. 45. Australian Biological Resources Study. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Frodin, D. G. (2001). Guide to Standard Floras of the World: An Annotated, Geographically Arranged Systematic Bibliography of the Principal Floras, Enumerations, Checklists and Chorological Atlases of Different Areas. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1-139-42865-9. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Stephen Downie; Ken Robertson. "Digital Flowers". University of Illinois. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- ICN (2011). "International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants". Bratislava: International Association for Plant Taxonomy. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Liliaceae". Pacific Bulb Society. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Lobstein, Marion Blois. "Where Have All the Lillies Gone? Long-Time Changin' in the Liliaceous Families". Prince William Wildflower Society. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Saylor, Jesse L. "Liliaceae Segregated According to Brummitt (1992)". Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- "Liliaceae". eMonocot. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- "Liliaceae". Belles fleurs de France. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Liliaceae.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Liliaceae|
|Look up Liliaceae in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.
To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!