The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Bermudez de Castro, J.M., J. Arsuaga, E. Carbonell, A. Rosas, I. Martinez, and M. Mosquera. 1997. A hominid from the lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: possible ancestor to Neandertals and modern humans. Science 276:1392-1395.
  • Brown, P., T. Sutikna, M. J. Morwood, R. P. Soejono, Jatmiko, E. Wayhu Saptomo, and Rokus Awe Due. 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431:1055-1061.
  • Caramelli, D., C. Lalueza-Fox, C. Vernesi, M. Lari, A. Casoli, F. Mallegni, B. Chiarelli, I. Dupanloup, J. Bertranpetit, G. Barbujani,and G. Bertorelle. 2003. Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 100(11):6593-6597.
  • Duarte, C., J. Maurício, P. B. Pettitt, P. Souto, E. Trinkaus, H. van der Plicht, and J. Zilhão. 1999. The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96:7604-7609.
  • Groves, Colin P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. viii+350
  • Harvati, K., S. R. Frost, and K. P. McNulty. 2004. Neanderthal taxonomy reconsidered: Implications of 3D primate models of intra- and interspecific differences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 101(5):1147-1152.
  • Kahn P. and A. Gibbons. 1997. DNA from an extinct human. Science 277:176-178.
  • Key, C. A. 2000. The evolution of human life history. World Archaeology 31:329-350.
  • Krings, M., A. Stone, R. W. Schmitz, , H. Krainitzki, M. Stoneking, and S. Päabo. 1997. Neandertal DNA sequences and the origin of modern humans. Cell 90:19-30.
  • Krings, M., H. Geisert, R. W. Schmitz, H. Krainitzki, and S. Päabo. 1999. DNA sequence of the mitochondrial hypervariable region II from the Neandertal type specimen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96:5581-5585.
  • Lieberman, D. E., B. A. Wood, and D. R. Pilbeam. 1996. Homoplasy and early Homo: An analysis of the evolutionary relationships of H. habilis sensu stricto and H. rudolfensis. Journal of Human Evolution 30:97-120.
  • Morwood, M. J., R. P. Soejono, R. G. Roberts, T. Sutikna, C. S. M. Turney, K. E. Westaway, W. J. Rink, J.-X. Zhao, G. D. van den Bergh, Rokus Awe Due, D. R. Hobbs, M. W. Moore, M. I. Bird, and L. K. Fifield. 2004. Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in eastern Indonesia. Nature 431:1087-1091.
  • Ovchinnikov, I. V., A. Gotherstrom, G. P. Romanova, V. M. Kharitonov, K. Liden, and W. Goodwin. 2000. Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus. Nature 404:490-493.
  • Schillaci, M. A. and J. W. Froehlich. 2001. Nonhuman primate hybridization and the taxonomic status of Neanderthals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 115(2):157-166.
  • Schwartz, J. H. and I. Tattersall. 2002. The Human Fossil Record. Volume 1: Terminology and Craniodental Morphology of Genus Homo (Europe). Wiley, New York. 400 pp.
  • Spoor, F. , M. G. Leakey, P. N. Gathogo, F. H. Brown, S. C. Antón, I. McDougall, C. Kiarie, F. K. Manthi, and L. N. Leakey. 2007. Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature 448:688-691.
  • Swisher, C. C., W. J. Rink, S. C. Anton, H. P. Schwartz, G. H. Curtis, A. Suprijo, Widiasmoro. 1996. Latest Homo erectus of Java: Potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in southeast Asia. Science 274:1870-1874.
  • Tattersall, I. 1995. The Last Neanderthal: The Rise, Success, and Mysterious Extinction of Our Closest Human Relatives. Macmillan, New York.
  • Tattersall, I. And J. H. Schwartz. 1999. Hominids and hybrids: The place of Neanderthals in human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96:7117-7119.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vol. 1. xxxv + 743
  • Wood, B. and M. Collard. 1999. Anthropology - The human genus. Science 284:65-71.
  • Wood, B. and M. Collard. 1999. The changing face of genus Homo. Evolutionary Anthropology 8:195-207.


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