Comprehensive Description

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Diagnosis: Cycloramphus faustoi (males 31.2–37.9 mm snout-vent length (SVL), females 41.6–44.0 mm SVL) is characterized by: (1) snout truncate in dorsal and lateral views, (2) head wider than long, (3) eyes protruding, (4) upper eyelid lacking tubercles or with a few small tubercles; (5) tympanum not visible externally, but present under skin; (6) lack of vocal slits; (7) vocal sac indistinct, (8) dentigerous process of vomer triangular, each bearing six teeth, (9) tibia shorter than thigh, (10) tibia + thigh size same size as SVL, (11) toes free, (12) dorsal skin slightly smooth, and (13) in life, dorsum dark brown with yellow or white scattered spots (Brasileiro et al. 2007).

Cycloramphus faustoi can be distinguished from the similar species C. diringshofeni by the following combination of characteristics: larger size (males to 37.9 mm SVL, vs. C. diringshofeni males up to 31 mm), lack of vocal slits (present in C. diringshofeni), and lack of dorsolateral ridges (present in C. diringshofeni). From C. eleutherodactylus, the new species differs by having a wider and shorter head; smaller relative interorbital distance; shorter eye-nostril distance; truncated snout in dorsal, ventral, and lateral views (rounded snout in C. eleutherodactylus); less protruding eyes; less concave loreal region; tibia shorter or the same size as thigh, such that when compressing the tibia against the thigh, the knees do not touch each other; vs. knees touching each other in C. eleutherodactylus); and darker, less patterned dorsal coloration in C. faustoi than in C. eleutherodactylus (Brasileiro et al. 2007).

Description: Robust, elliptical body when viewed from above. Head wider than long. Internarial distance is less than eye-nostril distance and less than eye diameter. Snout is truncate with protuberant nostrils and a concave loreal region. Eyes are protuberant. Some individuals have a few upper eyelid tubercles. Tympanum not visible externally. Discrete supratympanic fold extends from tympanic region to shoulder. Tongue smooth and elliptical with an anterior notch. Vomerine dentigerous processes are triangular and each has six vomerine teeth. Choanae are medium-size, rounded, and visible. Arm is slender but forearm is slightly robust. No ulnar fold is present. Fingers lack webbing or fringes. Relative finger lengths III>IV>II>I. Outer metacarpal tubercle is rounded and slightly bigger than the inner metacarpal tubercle, which is elliptical. Toes lack webbing or fringes. Relative toe length is IV>III>V>II>I. No tarsal fold or tarsal tubercles are present. Inner metatarsal tubercle is elliptical and is larger than the outer metatarsal tubercle, which is rounded. Inguinal glands are visible and round. Dorsal and ventral skin are mostly smooth in texture. Males have inguinal glands, an indistinct vocal sac, lack vocal slits, and are smaller than females, plus having relatively longer head, and greater arm, hand, foot, and tibial length (Brasileiro et al. 2007).

The dorsum is brown to dark brown, with sparse white to yellowish spots, a narrow light yellow interorbital bar, light bars on the arm, thigh, and tibia, phalangeal articulations lacking pigmentation, throat white with sparsely scattered brown spots; generally immaculate whitish belly (sometimes with a few brown spots) (Brasileiro et al. 2007).

In preservative, coloration of adults is variable, especially in males. Females have a dark brown dorsum with small white spots, indistinct labial bars, and a uniform brown ventral thigh surface. In both genders, bars are present on dorsal thighs and arms, the throat may be uniform brown or mottled, and an interorbital narrow light stripe may be continuous or broken. Males vary, with some having a dark brown dorsum with small white spots (50%), others having large dark blotches that coalesce (35%), and some with a broken pattern (15%) (Brasileiro et al. 2007).

First described by Brasileiro et al. (2007). The specific name faustoi honors Fausto Pires de Campos for his focus on scientific research and conservation in the Ilha dos Alcatrazes.


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