IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)

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Gonatopsis borealis was described by Sasaki (1923) based on 8 specimens (140-255 mm ML) donated by Mr. G. Yamaguchi. Most of the specimens were caught on 28 July 1922, 15-30 miles off Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan. Although Sasaki did not designated type specimens nor provide accurate measurements, his careful description and drawing are enough to specify this species is valid.

Various authors have reported the presence of 3 distinct morphs of G. borealis, namely: large, small and slender. The morphological and molecular status of these morphs have not been critically reviewed.

Based on differences in the number of teeth in the radula Nesis (1971) erected a new subgenus, Boreoteuthis, for G. borealis to separate it from other species in the genus Gonatopsis. Several subsequent authors have elevated this name to genus status (see Katugin, 2004). The issue of generic placement has not been resolved for borealis.


A Gonatopsis with ...

  • 7 radular teeth per transverse row.
  • short arms; distal tips not attenuated
  • with suckers in 4 rows near arm tips.
  • muscular mantle.


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