The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Alexander, R. 1979. The Invertebrates. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Brunel, P., L. Bosse, & G. Lamarche. 1998. Catalogue of the marine invertebrates of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 126. 405 p.
  • Cooper, E. 1960. Science on the Shores and Banks. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. 2001. Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50:
  • Gosner, K. 1978. Atlantic Seashore. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Great Northern Products, 2001. "Molluscs and Crustaceous" (On-line). Accessed April 27, 2001 at
  • Jobin, A., R. Jobin. 1997. "The Assateague Naturalist" (On-line). Accessed April 20, 2001 at
  • Kindersley, D. "Mollusca - Anatomy" (On-line). Accessed May 9, 2001 at
  • Lippson, J. 1984. Life in the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Meinkoth, N.A. 1981. Field guide to North American seashore creatures. The Audubon Society. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. 799 p.
  • Ogden, M. "Mollusca" (On-line). Accessed May 9, 2001 at
  • Streftaris, N.; Zenetos, A.; Papathanassiou, E. 2005. Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 43: 419-453
  • Trott, T.J. 2004. Cobscook Bay inventory: a historical checklist of marine invertebrates spanning 162 years. Northeastern Naturalist (Special Issue 2): 261 - 324.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526
  • Turgeon, D. D., W. G. Lyons, P. Mikkelsen, G. Rosenberg, and F. Moretzsohn. 2009. Bivalvia (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico,
  • Vierna J., Jensen K.T., González-Tizón A.M. & Martínez-Lage A. 2012. Population genetic analysis of Ensis directus unveils high genetic variation in the introduced range and reveals a new species from the NW Atlantic. Marine Biology 159(10): 2209–2227. [Published online 31 July 2012; Code-compliant version published in October 2012]


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