The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1967. Squids, cuttlefishes, octopuses. Pp. 93-94 in The Larousse Encyclopedia of Animal Life. London: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • 1998-2001. "CephBase" (On-line). Accessed September 14, 2001 at
  • Banister, K., A. Campbell. 1985. Mollusks. Pp. 255-270 in The Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life. New York, NY: Facts of File Publications.
  • Berg, L., D. Martin, E. Solomon. 1999. Biology. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Boyle, P.R. & Pierce, G.J., (1994). Fishery biology of northeast Atlantic squid: an overview. Fisheries Research, 21(Special Issue), 1-15. External link.
  • Campbell, A., (1994). Seashores and shallow seas of Britain and Europe. London: Hamlyn. External link.
  • Collins, M. A., Burnell, G. M. & Rodhouse, P. G., (1995). Recruitment, maturation and spawning of Loligo forbesi Steenstrup (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Irish waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 52, 127-137. External link.
  • Collins, M. A., Pierce, G. J. & Boyle, P. R., (1997). Population indices of reproduction and recruitment in Loligo forbesi (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Scottish and Irish waters Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 778-786. External link.
  • Grzimek, B. 1972. Mollusks. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 3: Mollusks & Echinoderms. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Guerra, A. & Rocha, F., (1994). The life history of Loligo vulgaris and Loligo forbesi (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Galician waters (NW Spain) Special Issue: Fishery Biology of Northeast Atlantic Squid, Fisheries Research, 21, 43-69. External link.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Holme, N.A., (1974). The biology of Loligo forbesi Steenstrup (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 54, 481-503. External link.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • ICES, (1994). Report of the study group on the life history assessment of Cephalopods. Copenhagen-Denmark ICES, K:7, 32. External link.
  • Kristensen, T. K. and J. Knudsen. 1983. A catalogue of the type specimens of Cephalopoda (Mollusca) in the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Steenstrupia, 9 (10). 217-227
  • Lum-Kong, A., Pierce, G.J. & Yau, C., (1992). Timing of spawning and recruitment in Loligo forbesi (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Scottish waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 72, 301-311. External link.
  • Miramand, P. & Bentley, D., (1992). Concentration and distribution of heavy metals in tissues of two cephalopods, Eledone cirrhosa and Sepia officinalis, from the French coast of the English Channel Marine Biology, 114, 407-414. External link.
  • Nichols, D., J. Cooke. 1971. The Oxford Book of Invertebrates. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Pierce, G.J., Boyle, P.R., Hastie, L.C. & Shanks, A.M., (1994). Distribution and abundance of the fished population of Loligo forbesii in UK waters: analysis of fishery data Special Issue: Fishery Biology of Northeast Atlantic Squid, Fisheries Issue, 21, 193-216. External link.
  • Roper, C.F.E., Sweeney, M.J. & Nauen, C.E., (1984). FAO species catalogue. Vol. 3. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, 125, 3, 277. External link.
  • Steenstrup J. 1857. Hectocotylus formation in Argonauta and Tremoctopus explained by observations on similar formations in the Cephalopoda in general. Annals and Magazine of Natural History ser. 2, 20: 81-114.
  • Steenstrup, J. 1856. Hectoctyldannelsen hos Octopodslaegterne Argonauta og Tremoctopus, oplyst ved Iagttagelse af lignende Dannelser hos Blacksprutterne i Almindelighed. Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, 5 Raekke, Naturvidenskabelig og Mathematisk, 4. 185-216
  • Sweeney, M. J. and C. F. E. Roper / N. A. Voss, M. Vecchione, R. B. Toll and M. J. Sweeney, eds. 1998. Classification, type localities and type repositories of recent Cephalopoda. Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 586 (I-II). 561-599
  • Vecchione, M. J., T. F. Brakoniecki, Y. Natsukari and R. T. Hanlon / N. A. Voss et al., eds. 1998. A provisional generic classification of the family Loliginidae. Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 586 (I-II). 215-222
  • Wilson, E. 1999. "MarLIN: The Marine Life Information Network for Britain & Ireland" (On-line). Accessed September 14, 2001 at


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