The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • Abbot, R. T. 1954. American Seashells. D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.
  • Baird D, Ulanowicz RE (1989) The seasonal dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 59:329–364
  • Beaumont, A.R., Newman, P.B., Mills, D.K., Waldock, M.J., Miller, D. & Waite, M.E., (1989). Sandy-substrate microcosm studies on tributyl tin (TBT) toxicity to marine organisms. Scientia Marina, 53, 737-743. External link.
  • Berg, W. E., 1956. Cytochrome oxidase in anterior and posterior blastomeres of Ciona intestinalis. Biol. Bull., 110: 1-7.
  • Berrill, N. J., 1929. Studies in tunicate development. I. General physiology of development of simple ascidians. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, ser. B, 218: 37-78.
  • Berrill, N. J., 1932. The mosaic development of the ascidian egg. Biol. Bull., 63: 381-386.
  • Berrill, N. J., 1935. Studies in tunicate development. Iii. Differential retardation and acceleration. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, ser. B, 225: 255-326.
  • Berrill, N. J., 1937. Culture methods for ascidians. In: Culture Methods for Invertebrate Animals, edit. by Galtsoff et al., Comstock, Ithaca, pp. 564-571.
  • Berrill, N. J., 1947. The development and growth of Ciona. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc., 26: 616-625.
  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Bowden, J. & Heppell, D., (1966). Revised List of British Mollusca 1. Introduction; Nuculacea-Ostreacea. Journal of Conchology, 26, 99-124. External link.
  • Brunel, P., L. Bosse, & G. Lamarche. 1998. Catalogue of the marine invertebrates of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 126. 405 p.
  • Burkett JR; Hight LM; Kenny P; Wilker JJ. 2010. Oysters produce an organic-inorganic adhesive for intertidal reef construction. J Am Chem Soc.
  • Carlisle, D. B., 1951. On the hormonal and neural control of the release of gametes in ascidians. J. Exp. Biol., 28: 463-472.
  • Castle, W. E., 1896. The early development of Ciona intestinalis, Flemming (L.). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, 27: 201-280.
  • Conklin, E. G., 1905. The organization and cell-lineage of the ascidian egg. J. Acad. Nat. Sci, Philadelphia, ser. 2, 13: 1-119.
  • Duesberg, J., 1915. Recherches cytologiques sur la fecondation des Ascidiens et sur leur developpement. Contrib. to Embryol., 3: 33-70. (Carnegie Inst., Wash., Publ. no. 223.).
  • Fautin D, Dalton P, Incze LS, Leong J-AC, Pautzke C, et al. 2010. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11914. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011914
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. 2001. Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50:
  • Harvey, L. A., 1927. The history of the cytoplasmic inclusions of the egg of Ciona intestinalis (L.) during oogenesis and fertilisation. Proc. Roy. Soc., London, ser. B, 101: 136-162.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Huber M. 2010. Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901
  • ITIS database
  • Just, E. E., 1934a. On the rearing of Ciona intestinalis under laboratory conditions to sexual maturity. Carnegie Inst., Wash., Year Book, 33: 270.
  • Just, E. E., 1934b. Zoological researches. Carnegie Inst., Wash., Year Book, 34: 280-284.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Morgan, T. H., 1945. The conditions that lead to normal or abnormal development of Ciona. Biol. Bull., 88: 50-62.
  • NBN (National Biodiversity Network), (2002). National Biodiversity Network gateway., 2008-10-31 00:00:00 External link.
  • Pacific Oyster Culture in British Columbia by D. B. Quayle
  • Production of Aquatic Animals by C. E. Nash
  • Rose, S. M., 1939. Embryonic induction in the Ascidia. Biol. Bull., 77: 216-232.
  • Seaward, D.R., (1990). Distribution of marine molluscs of north west Europe. Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council. External link.
  • Streftaris, N.; Zenetos, A.; Papathanassiou, E. 2005. Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 43: 419-453
  • Tebble, N., (1976). British Bivalve Seashells. A Handbook for Identification, 2nd ed. Edinburgh: British Museum (Natural History), Her Majesty's Stationary Office. External link.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526
  • Turgeon, D. D., W. G. Lyons, P. Mikkelsen, G. Rosenberg, and F. Moretzsohn. 2009. Bivalvia (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico,
  • Wilbur, K.M., (1988). The Mollusca. Volume II: Form and Function. London: Academic Press Inc. Ltd., External link.
  • Willey, A., 1893. Studies on the Protochordata. I. On the origin of the branchial stigmata, praeoral lobe, endostyle, atrial cavities etc., in Ciona intestinalis, Linn., with remarks on Clavelina lepadiformis. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 317-360.
  • Yonge, C.M. & Thompson, T.E., (1976). Living Marine Molluscs London: Collins. External link.
  • Yonge, C.M., (1960). Oysters. London: Collins. External link.
  • Zeijthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis. Biol. Bull., 108: 366-385.
  • de Kluijver, M.J.; Ingalsuo, S.S.; de Bruyne, R.H. 2000. Macrobenthos of the North Sea [CD-ROM]: 1. Keys to Mollusca and Brachiopoda. World Biodiversity Database CD-ROM Series. Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification (ETI): Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ISBN 3-540-14706-3. 1 cd-rom pp.


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