The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2009. "National Resource for Aplysia" (On-line). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Accessed June 22, 2009 at
  • Bebbington, A.,. 1977. Aplysiid species from eastern Australia with notes on the Pacific Ocean Aplysiomorpha (Gastropoda, Opistobranchia). Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 34 1: 87-147.
  • Borradaile, L., F. Potts. 1963. The Invertebrata: A Manual for the use of Students. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Buchsbaum, M., R. Buchsbaum, V. Pearse, J. Pearse. 1989. Living Invertebrates. Pacific Grove, California: The Boxwood Press.
  • Grzimek, B. 1968. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia (vol. 3-Mollusks and Echinoderms). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • ITIS database
  • Kuenzi, F., T. Carew. 1994. Head waving in Aplysia californica: 1. Behavioral characterization of searching movements. Journal of Experimental Biology, volume 195, no.0: 35-51.
  • Meinkoth, N. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Seashore Creatures. New York: Alfred A. Kuopf, Inc..
  • Nichols, D. 1979. The Oxford Book of Invertebrates. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Prince, J., T. Nolen, L. Coelho. May 1998. Defensive ink pigment proessing and secretion in Aplysia californica: concentration and storage of phycoerythrobilin in the ink gland. The Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 201, no.10: 1595-1613.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526
  • Turgeon, D.; Quinn, J.F.; Bogan, A.E.; Coan, E.V.; Hochberg, F.G.; Lyons, W.G.; Mikkelsen, P.M.; Neves, R.J.; Roper, C.F.E.; Rosenberg, G.; Roth, B.; Scheltema, A.; Thompson, F.G.; Vecchione, M.; Will. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, 26. American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD (USA). ISBN 1-888569-01-8. IX, 526 + cd-rom pp.
  • Yang, H.; Johnson, P. M.; Ko, K. C.; Kamio, M.; Germann, M. W.; Derby, C. D.; Tai, P. C. 2005. Cloning, characterization and expression of escapin, a broadly antimicrobial FAD-containing l-amino acid oxidase from ink of the sea hare Aplysia californica. Journal of Experimental Biology. 208(18): 3609-3622.


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