The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 10.  Chrosciewicz, Z. 1976. Burning for black spruce regeneration on a        lowland cutover site in southeastern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of        Forest Research. 6(2): 179-186.  [7280]
  • 11.  Coupland, Robert T. 1961. A reconsideration of grassland classification        in the northern Great Plains of North America. Journal of Ecology. 49:        135-167.  [12588]
  • 12.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806]
  • 14.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 16.  Gibson, David J. 1989. Effects of animal disturbance on tallgrass        prairie vegetation. American Midland Naturalist. 121: 144-154.  [6641]
  • 17.  Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in        the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota        State University. 141 p. Thesis.  [5661]
  • 18.  Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of        northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New        York Botanical Garden. 910 p.  [20329]
  • 19.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]
  • 2.  Alexander, Lynn E.; Uresk, Daniel W.; Hansen, Richard M. 1983. Summer        food habits of domestic sheep in southeastern Montana. Journal of Range        Management. 36(3): 307-308.  [6003]
  • 20.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific        Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168]
  • 21.  Hurd, Richard M.; Christisen, Donald M. 1975. Ecology study of Friendly        Prairie, Missouri. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view.        Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 89-102.  [4432]
  • 22.  Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota        grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota        State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p.  [18501]
  • 23.  Keay, Jeffrey A. 1977. Relationship of habitat use patterns and forage        preferences of white-tailed and mule deer to post-fire vegetation, Upper        Selway River. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 76 p. Thesis.  [1316]
  • 24.  Knapp, Paul A. 1991. The response of semi-arid vegetation assemblages        following the abandonment of mining towns in south-western Montana.        Journal of Arid Environments. 20: 205-222.  [14894]
  • 25.  Knutson, Herbert; Campbell, John B. 1976. Relationships of grasshoppers        (Acrididae) to burning, grazing, and range sites of native tallgrass        prairie in Kansas. In: Tall Timbers conference on ecological animal        control by Habitat management: Proceedings; 1974 February 28 - March 1;        Gainesville, FL. Number 6. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research        Station: 107-120.  [17851]
  • 27.  Mace, Richard D.; Bissell, Gael N. 1986. Grizzly bear food resources in        the flood plains and avalanche chutes of the Bob Marshall Wilderness,        Montana. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans, Keith E., compilers.        Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985 April 30 - May 2;        Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 78-91.        [10812]
  • 28.  Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular        flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.        507 p.  [17383]
  • 29.  Olson, Wendell W. 1975. Effects of controlled burning on grassland        within the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. Fargo, ND: North Dakota        University of Agriculture and Applied Science. 137 p. Thesis.  [15252]
  • 3.  Anderson, Howard A. 1978. Annual burning and vegetation in the aspen        parkland of east central Alberta. In: Dube, D. E., compiler. Fire        ecology in resource management: Workshop proceedings; 1977 December 6-7;        [Location unknown]
  • 30.  Parker, Karl G. 1975. Some important Utah range plants. Extension        Service Bulletin EC-383. Logan, UT: Utah State University. 174 p.        [9878]
  • 31.  Pase, Charles P.; Knipe, O. D. 1977. Effect of winter burning on        herbaceous cover on a converted chaparral watershed. Journal of Range        Management. 30(5): 346-348.  [1828]
  • 32.  Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific        variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a        northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J.,        eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings,        6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH.        Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio        State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240.  [3435]
  • 33.  Platt, William J. 1975. The colonization and formation of equilibrium        plant species associations on badger disturbances in a tall-grass        prairie. Ecological Monographs. 45: 285-305.  [6903]
  • 34.  Rabinowitz, D. 1981. Buried viable seeds in a North American tall-grass        prairie: the resemblance of their abundance and composition to        dispersing seeds. Oikos. 36: 191-195.  [5581]
  • 36.  Ries, R. E.; Hofmann, L. 1983. Number of seedlings established from        stored prairie hay. In: Brewer, Richard, ed. Proceedings, 8th North        American prairie conference; 1982 August 1-4; Kalamazoo, MI. Kalamazoo,        MI: Western Michigan University, Department of Biology: 3-4.  [3112]
  • 37.  Risser, P. G.; Birney, E. C.; Blocker, H. D.; [and others]
  • 39.  Tyser, Robin W.; Key, Carl H. 1988. Spotted knapweed in natural area        fescue grasslands: an ecological assessment. Northwest Science. 62(4):        151-160.  [5485]
  • 4.  Anderson, Howard G.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1980. Effects of annual burning        on grassland in the aspen parkland of east-central Alberta. Canadian        Journal of Botany. 58: 985-996.  [3499]
  • 41.  Vance, F. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; McLean, J. S. 1984. Wildflowers of the        Northern Great Plains. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.        336 p.  [22199]
  • 43.  Vogl, Richard J. 1971. Fire and the northern Wisconsin pine barrens. In:        Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers Fire ecology conference; 1970 August        20-21; New Brunsick, Canada. No. 10. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers        Research Station: 175-209.  [2432]
  • 44.  Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful        in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,        DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.        [4837]
  • 45.  Weaver, J. E. 1968. Prairie plants and their environment: A fifty-year        study in the Midwest. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 276 p.        [17549]
  • 46.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]
  • 47.  Whitman, W. C., Wali, M. K. 1975. Grasslands of North Dakota. In: Wali,        Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of        North Dakota Press: 53-74.  [4430]
  • 48.  Wolfe, Carl W. 1973. Effects of fire on a sandhills grassland        environment. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology        conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. Number 12. Tallahassee, FL: Tall        Timbers Research Station: 241-255.  [8469]
  • 49.  Wright, Henry A.; Thompson, Rita. 1978. Fire effects. In: Fire        management: Prairie plant communities: Proceedings of a symposium and        workshop; 1978 April 25-28; Jamestown, ND. [Place of publication        unknown]
  • 5.  Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The        Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p.  [3801]
  • 6.  Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1982. Perennial forbs for        wildlife habitat restoration on mined lands in the northern Great        Plains. In: Western proceedings, 62nd annual conference of the Western        Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies; 1982 July 19-22; Las Vegas,        Nevada. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 7.  Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for        seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W.,        compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the        conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land        Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262.  [14354]
  • 9.  Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First        flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth,        North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64.  [20450]
  • Abrams, L. & R. S. Ferris. 1960. Bignonias to Sunflowers. 4: 732 pp. In L. Abrams (ed.) Ill. Fl. Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Cronquist, A.J. 1980. Asteraceae. 1: i–xv, 1–261. In Vasc. Fl. S.E. U. S. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Cronquist, A.J. 1994. Asterales. 5: 1–496. In A.J. Cronquist, A. H. Holmgren, N. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal & P. K. Holmgren (eds.) Intermount. Fl. Hafner Pub. Co., New York.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flann C. (ed) (2013). GCC: Global Compositae Checklist (version 3 (Beta), Feb 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, e. 2006. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 7: Asteraceae, part 2. Fl. N. Amer. 20: i–xxii + 1–666.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Sympetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 3. 596 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (03/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Holotype: Holzinger, J. M. 1892. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 1: 208.
  • Holotype: Steele, E. S. 1911. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 13: 370.
  • Holotype: Wooton, E. O. & Standley, P. C. 1913. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 182.
  • Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 7(1): 32–33. 1834. (J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia)
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1979. Dicotyledoneae (Loasaceae to Compositae). Part 4. 1117–1711 pp. In Fl. Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.
  • Type collection: Greene, E. L. 1909. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 196.
  • Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Inst. of Science, Ann Arbor.


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