The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • AFPD. 2008. African Flowering Plants Database - Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique.
  • Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 7: 957, f. 11. 1899. (Bull. Herb. Boissier)
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Correa A., M.D., C. Galdames & M. Stapf. 2004. Cat. Pl. Vasc. Panamá 1–599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.
  • Forzza, R. C. 2010. Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
  • Funk, V. A., P. E. Berry, S. Alexander, T. H. Hollowell & C. L. Kelloff. 2007. Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584.
  • Gonzalez ER, P Haye, MJ Balanda & M Thiel . 2008. Lista sistematica de especies de peracaridos de Chile (Crustaceae, Eumalacostraca). Gayana (Chile) 72: 157-1777.
  • Hokche, O., P. E. Berry & O. Huber. (eds.) 2008. Nuevo Cat. Fl. Vasc. Venez. 1–860. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, Caracas.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Fl. Antioquia: Cat. 2: 9–939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Macbride, J. F. 1956. Sterculiaceae. 13(3A/2): 622–667. In J. F. Macbride (ed.) Fl. Peru. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. Field Museum, Chicago.
  • Malvales of North America Update
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 13(3A/2): 654. 1956. (21 Dec 1956) (Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser.)
  • Species Plantarum 2: 782. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)


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