HabitRobust perennial herbs, erect becoming decumbent, woody at the base, to 1 m tall, to 1 m in diameter , occasionally spreading in rocky habitats. Stems 8-12 mm in diameter at base, grayish, densely velvety pubescent with simple uniseriate eglandular white trichomes to 0.5 mm long from a unicellular base and bent at the tip, much more abundant on young stems, andscattered short, uniseriate glandular trichomes with 4-celled heads and 8 celled heads amongst the eglandular trichomes.
Sympodial StructureSympodial units 2 (rarely 3)-foliate; internodes 1-2 (5) cm long.
LeavesLeaves interrupted imparipinnate, (5-) 7-13 (-20) cm long, (2-) 2.5-6.5 (-10) cm wide, grayish green, densely white velvety pubescent with simple uniseriate trichomes like those of the stems, the glandular trichomes fewer, abaxially more densely pubescent and the leaves paler beneath; primary leaflets 5-7 pairs, not markedly decreasing in size towards the base, narrowly elliptic, the base decurrent on the rachis, oblique and the lamina broader basiscopically, the leaflets essentially sessile, the margins irregularly crenate to deeply and irregularly lobed nearly to the leaflet rachis, especially basally, the apex broadly acute to acuminate; terminal leaflet narrower and larger than the laterals, 2-4 cm long, 0.7-2.5 cm wide, the petiolule absent, the base decurrent along the rachis; lateral leaflets 1.2-3.5 cm long, 0.5-1.3 cm wide, the petiolule absent or to 0.1 cm long, in some specimens with especially large leaves; secondary leaflets often present acroscopically on the largest laterals, 0.2-0.4 cm long, 0.05-0.2 cm wide, decurrent on the leaflet rachis; tertiary leaflets absent; interjected leaflets 10-20, often 2 pairs between sets of lateral leaflets, 0.2-0.5 cm long, 0.1-0.3 cm wide, sessile and the base decurrent on the rachis, crowded between the lateral leaflets; petiole 0.5-2 (4) cm long; pseudostipules well developed on most nodes, 0.5-0.9 cm long, 0.4-1.2 cm wide, the margins irregularly crenate.
InflorescencesInflorescences 6-20 (-30) cm, usually once branched and regularly bifurcate, occasionally with additional bifurcations apically and the inflorescence to 3-branched, with (12-) 20-50 flowers, ebracteate or with most nodes bracteate, the bracts 0.5-1.2 cm long, 0.2-0.5 cm wide, the margins irregularly crenate, peduncle 4-15 cm long, densely white velvety pubescent like the stems and leaves. Pedicels 1-1.6 cm long, articulate in the distal half. Buds 0.9-1.2 cm long, 0.3-0.4 cm wide, conical, straight, with the corolla slightly less than halfway exserted from the calyx just before anthesis.
FlowersFlowers with the calyx tube 0.05-0.1 cm long, the lobes 0.5-0.6 cm long, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, lanceolate, densely white velvety pubescent on both surfaces; corolla 2-2.6 cm in diameter, rotate-stellate, bright yellow with medial darker midveins on each lobe, the tube 0.4-0.5 (-0.7) cm long, the lobes 1-1.2 cm long, 0.5-0.6 (-0.7)cm wide, sparsely pubescent abaxially with simple, white uniseriate trichomes to 0.25 mm long, these more abundant on the midveins, margins and tips, reflexed at anthesis; staminal column 0.9-1.3 cm long, straight, the filaments less than 0.5 mm long, the anthers 0.5-0.8 cm long, the sterile apical appendage 0.15-0.2 cm long; ovary globose, glabrous or minutely puberulent at the apex; style 1-1.4 cm long, ca. 0.5 mm in diameter, densely white pubescent in the basal half, exserted 0.15-0.2 cm from the staminal column; stigma capitate, green.
Fruits. Fruit 1-1.5 cm in diameter, globose, 2-5-locular, greenish white with purple stripes at locule margins when ripe, sparsely to moderately pubescent with weak-walled, simple, white, uniseriate trichomes 0.5-0.7 mm long, these occasionally with unicellular glandular heads, the surface also occasionally with short uniseriate glandular trichomes with 4-celled heads, the fruit surface minutely papillate; fruiting pedicels 1.4-2.1 cm long, straight or slightly bent at the articulation; calyx lobes in fruit 1.2-1.6 cm long, 0.15-0.2 cm wide, narrowing at the base of the sinus, loosely investing the berry or spreading.
SeedsSeeds 2.2-3.2 mm long, 1.2-1.6 mm wide, 0.5-0.7 mm thick, obovate, dark brown, pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the lateral testa cell walls, these adpressed and giving a silky appearance to the surface or sometimes shaggy, narrowly winged (ca. 0.2 mm) at the apex and acute at the base.
Catalog Number: US 1324429
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): R. A. Philippi
Locality: Antofagasta, Chile, South America
- Isotype: Philippi, R. A. 1891. Anales Mus. Nac. Chile, Bot. 1891: 63.
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Solanum chilense
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solanum chilense
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
|This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (May 2012)|
Description[edit source | edit]
Solanum chilense is a robust, perennial, herbaceous plant that at first grows erect, later lying. It reaches up to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) high; its foliage reaches a similar diameter. It is found on rocky sites. The grayish stems become woody at the base and reach a diameter of 8 to 12 millimetres (0.31 to 0.47 in). The dense, velvety coat consists of white, single row, nichtdrüsigen[clarification needed] trichomes up to 0.5 mm in length and occasional short-row, glandular trichomes with four or achtzelligen heads.
The sympodial units have two (rarely three) leaves. The internodes are 1–2 (rarely 5) cm long. The leaves are broken imparipinnate, (often only 5 to) 7 to 13 (rarely to 20) cm long and (rarely 2) 2.5 to 6.5 (rarely to 10) cm wide. They are greyish green. The coat is similar to the stem, but with less glandular trichomes.
Leaves[edit source | edit]
Between the upper and lower parts of the leaves, there is no appreciable difference in size. They reach a length of 1.2 to 3.5 centimetres (0.47 to 1.4 in) and a width of 0.5 to 1.3 centimetres (0.20 to 0.51 in). The front part of the leaf is longer and narrower in proportion to the side and then 2 to 4 centimetres (0.79 to 1.6 in) long and 0.7 to 2.5 centimetres (0.28 to 0.98 in) wide.
The leaves are often part of the second order from the largest side of leaves and are 0.2 to 0.4 centimetres (0.079 to 0.16 in) long and 0.05 to 0.2 centimetres (0.020 to 0.079 in) wide. The base of the leaf stalks down. Between the main part of the profile, leaves are usually in two pairs about 10 to 20 inserted part flakes.
|This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. (May 2012)|
They are 0.2 to 0.5 centimetres (0.079 to 0.20 in) long and 0.1 to 0.3 centimetres (0.039 to 0.12 in) wide. Alongside sheets are pronounced at most nodes, 0.5 to 0.9 centimetres (0.20 to 0.35 in) long and 0.4 to 1.2 centimetres (0.16 to 0.47 in) wide.
Distribution and Ecology[edit source | edit]
The species occurs on the western slopes of the Tacna region of the Andes in southern Peru to northern Chile. They grow in extremely dry, rocky areas and in coastal deserts from sea level to up to 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). The flowers and fruits appear consistently throughout the year, but there is a noticeable increase in flowering between September and October.
Further reading[edit source | edit]
- Iris E. Peralta, David M. Spooner, Sandra Knapp: Taxonomy of Wild Tomatoes and Their Relatives (.. Solanum sect Lycopersicoides, Juglandifolia sect, sect Lycopersicon, Solanaceae.). Systematic Botany Monographs, Volume 84, The American Society of Plant taxonomists, June 2008, ISBN 978-0-912861-84-5
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